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BACKGROUND Three patients who received visceral-organ transplants from a single donor on the same day died of a febrile illness 4 to 6 weeks after transplantation. Culture, polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) and serologic assays, and oligonucleotide microarray analysis for a wide range of infectious agents were not informative. METHODS We evaluated RNA(More)
The present study describes a heminested multiplex reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assay which enables simultaneous detection and differentiation of Norwalk-like virus (NLV) genogroups from clinical fecal samples without the need to perform sequencing or hybridization. The assay developed was able to detect concentrations of fewer than 100 viral particles(More)
At various times postonset of rash, 74 patients positive for measles virus-specific immunoglobulin M provided samples for detection of measles virus RNA by a reverse transcriptase PCR. Of lymphocytes, urine, throat swab, and serum specimens, throat swab specimens were optimal for detection of measles virus RNA during the first 2 weeks after the rash.
Respiratory viruses were identified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in more than 4,200 specimens collected during 2002 and 2003 in Victoria, Australia from patients admitted to hospitals or participating in an influenza surveillance program. Influenza viruses and picornaviruses were important causes of morbidity in both years. Additional testing of(More)
Molecular epidemiology studies have made significant contributions to the control of measles virus infection through the identification of source and transmission pathways of the virus. These studies allow observation of changes in measles virus genotypes over time in a particular geographical location, clarification of epidemiological links during measles(More)
BACKGROUND No conventional immunosuppressive agent preferentially inhibits antibody production. Studies in experimental animals and in human cells in vitro suggested mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) might have such an effect. If this was the case in vivo it could have significant implications in terms of both MMF toxicity and the rational design of(More)
In Victoria (Australia) surveillance for mumps and rubella has historically been passive, with most notified cases clinically diagnosed. In July 2001, the Victorian Department of Human Services implemented an enhanced surveillance system focusing on improved laboratory testing. We tested 85% of notifications and only 9% of all mumps and 27% of rubella(More)
A multiplex PCR was designed to amplify herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, cytomegalovirus, and varicella-zoster virus DNA present in a diverse range of clinical material. The susceptibility of these viruses to in vivo inhibition by at least one antiviral drug was an important consideration in their inclusion in the multiplex detection system. An aliquot(More)
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (SARS-CoV) caused a severe outbreak in several regions of the world in 2003. The SARS-CoV genome is predicted to contain 14 functional open reading frames (ORFs). The first ORF (1a and 1b) encodes a large polyprotein that is cleaved into nonstructural proteins (nsp). The other ORFs encode for four(More)
The role of diverse infectious agents, particularly Norwalk-like viruses (NLV), in three successive gastro-enteritis outbreaks in one setting (a restaurant) was evaluated. Methods included standard bacteriological tests, specific tests for Escherichia coli, tests for verocytotoxins, electron microscopy (EM) for viruses and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR)(More)