Mike Fulford

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Dental-unit water systems (DUWS) harbor bacterial biofilms, which may serve as a haven for pathogens. The aim of this study was to investigate the microbial load of water from DUWS in general dental practices and the biofouling of DUWS tubing. Water and tube samples were taken from 55 dental surgeries in southwestern England. Contamination was determined by(More)
Dental unit water system (DUWS) tubing harbors complex multispecies biofilms that are responsible for high microbial levels at the distal outlet. The aim of this study was to use an established biofilm laboratory model to simulate biofouling of DUWS to evaluate practical, cost-effective, and evidence-based methods of microbial decontamination. Reproducible(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine if either ATP or endotoxin concentrations in water supplied by dental unit water systems (DUWS) correlated with total viable counts (TVC), and therefore could be used as a rapid, chairside measure of levels of microbial contamination. DESIGN A prospective trial. METHOD Fifty-seven water samples were taken from the 'triple spray',(More)
Water delivered by dental unit water systems (DUWS) in general dental practices can harbor high numbers of bacteria, including opportunistic pathogens. Biofilms on tubing within DUWS provide a reservoir for microorganisms and should be controlled. This study compared disinfection products for their ability to meet the American Dental Association's guideline(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess residual protein on dental instruments cleaned in general dental practice by manual, manual plus ultrasonic and automated washer disinfector (AWD) processes. DESIGN AND SETTING Instruments submitted by 30 dental surgeries in the South West of England. SUBJECTS (MATERIALS) AND METHODS Instruments analysed were matrix bands, associated(More)
A range of opportunistic pathogens have been associated with dental unit water systems (DUWS), particularly in the biofilms that can line the tubing. This study therefore aimed to assess the microbiology of DUWS and biofilms in general dental practices across seven European countries, including the United Kingdom (UK), Ireland (IRL), Greece (GR), Spain(More)
OBJECTIVE To measure the concentration of microbial aerosols in general dental practices and to use this information to carry out quantitative microbiological risk assessments. METHODOLOGY Microbial air sampling was carried out continuously during 12 treatment sessions in 6 general dental practices in the South West of England. RESULTS The microbial(More)
Molar bands are commonly used to retain orthodontic attachments on posterior teeth and due to the variation in the size of such teeth, it is usually necessary to 'try in' several bands before the correct one is selected. A possible concern with re-using such bands is the lack of cross-infection control, even following autoclaving, due to the presence of one(More)
UNLABELLED Dental Unit Water Systems (DUWS) are used in dental practices to provide water for cooling of dental equipment and irrigation of the oral cavity. However, they have been demonstrated to be contaminated with micro-organisms. There are currently no European Union (EU) Commission guidelines for the microbial quality of water discharged by DUWS. This(More)
This paper describes work undertaken by the VERA project to investigate how archaeologists work with information technology (IT) on excavation sites. We used a diary study to research the usual patterns of behaviour of archaeologists digging the Silchester Roman town site during the summer of 2007. Although recording had previously been undertaken using pen(More)