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BACKGROUND The use of MDMA ('ecstasy') is common among young people in Western countries. Animal models of MDMA toxicity suggest a loss of serotonergic neurons, and potentially implicate in the development of significant psychiatric morbidity in humans. AIMS To test whether long-term use of MDMA can produce abnormalities in cerebral serotonin, but not(More)
BACKGROUND In healthy controls, preactivation of muscles by exercise results in enhanced motor-evoked potential (MEP) responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). AIMS We tested the hypothesis that medicated, depressed patients would show reduced post-exercise MEP facilitation compared with controls. METHOD Ten patients with DSM-IV depression(More)
BACKGROUND Treatment-resistant depression (TRD) is relatively common but its neurobiological basis is poorly understood. Fronto-striatal structural brain changes have been reported in patients with depression but their association with treatment resistance and chronicity has not been established. METHOD Magnetic resonance images of 20 patients with TRD(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the relation between atrophy of the hippocampal region and brain functional patterns during episodic memory processing in Alzheimer's disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS Whole brain structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) measures of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were(More)
Ten healthy volunteers were examined with single photon emission tomography and 99mTc-exametazime. They were studied on 2 occasions, during a 2- and a 3-sound auditory discrimination (oddball) task. Twenty healthy volunteers were used as controls, studied once at rest. During the 2-tone task there was a bilateral posterior (occipito-) temporal and medial(More)
The grey matter (GM) segments from T1 structural magnetic resonance (MR) images of the brain in subjects at high risk of schizophrenia (n=146) were compared with normal control subjects (n=36) and first episode schizophrenic subjects (n=34) using automated voxel-based morphometry (VBM). The subjects were recruited for the Edinburgh High Risk Study (EHRS)(More)
We hypothesized that impaired postexercise motor evoked potential (MEP) facilitation in depressed patients would reverse with recovery from depression. Transcranial magnetic stimulation and exercise of the thenar muscles were used to examine the 10 controls, 10 medicated depressed patients, and 10 medicated recovered patients. Depressed patients showed(More)
BACKGROUND Genetic studies in schizophrenia are hampered by the complex heterogeneous clinical phenotype. Biological variables identified as trait markers of risk could clarify the mode of inheritance, define clinical subgroups and provide clues about aetiology. AIMS To use single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to compare brain perfusion maps(More)
The aim of this study was to compare the gray matter segments from T1 structural MR images of the brain in first-episode schizophrenic subjects (n = 34) and normal control subjects (n = 36) using automated voxel-based morphometry (VBM). This study is novel in that few studies have examined subjects in their first episode of schizophrenia. The subjects were(More)
BACKGROUND The aetiology of treatment-resistant major depression is little understood; its apparent intractability may reflect brain abnormality. METHOD Magnetic resonance images of the brains of 20 subjects with major depression lasting for two years or more were compared with 20 healthy control subjects and 20 other subjects who had completely recovered(More)