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Measurements on the retention of cigarette smoke constituents in the human respiratory tract have been undertake for more than 100 years. The first studies on nicotine retention were begun by Lehmann in Germany in 1903 and published in 1908. The first studies on the retention of smoke particulate matter were published by Baumbereger in the United States in(More)
Medicinal plant production is different from other agricultural production systems in that the plants are grown for the production of specific phytochemical(s) for human use. To address this need, a Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP)-compliant, controlled-environment production system was developed for production of Echinacea purpurea and Echinacea(More)
Smoke yields determined by a machine-based smoking method cannot adequately predict exposures experienced by human smokers. In this work, a filter analysis technique which addresses this fundamental limitation was used to measure mouth level exposures (MLE) to tar and nicotine in 1330 smokers of 26 brand-styles of US cigarettes covering a wide range of(More)
The March 1992 takeoff-icing accident at LaGuardia Airport (NTSB 1993) marked a turning point in winter operations at U.S. air carrier airports. Within nine months of the accident, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) had established new U.S. rules for de/anti-icing aircraft prior to takeoff. In that environment, the FAA also expanded its Weather(More)
The analysis of spent cigarette filters enables the estimation of the nicotine and tar (nicotine-free dry particulate matter) yields obtained by smokers in their everyday environment and has been shown to correlate well with biomarkers of exposure. Leading products across the range of ISO tar yields were selected from Australia, Brazil, Canada, Germany,(More)
Menthol can reduce sensory irritation and it has been hypothesised that this could result in smokers of mentholated cigarettes taking larger puffs and deeper post-puff inhalations thereby obtaining higher exposures to smoke constituents than smokers of non-mentholated cigarettes. The aim of our study was to use part-filter analysis methodology to assess the(More)
Removal of natural organic matter (NOM) is a key requirement to improve drinking water quality. This study compared the removal of NOM with, and without, the patented magnetic ion exchange process for removal of dissolved organic carbon (MIEX DOC) as a pre-treatment to microfiltration or conventional coagulation treatment over a 2 year period. A range of(More)
This study assessed the impact of MIEX pre-treatment, followed by either coagulation or microfiltration (MF), on the effectiveness of pilot granular activated carbon (GAC) filters for the removal of the taste and odour compounds, 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) and geosmin, from a surface drinking water source over a 2-year period. Complete removal of MIB and(More)
Differences in length and circumference of cigarettes may influence smoker behaviour and exposure to smoke constituents. Superslim king-size (KSSS) cigarettes (17mm circumference versus 25mm circumference of conventional king-size [KS] cigarettes), have gained popularity in several countries, including Russia. Some smoke constituents are lower in(More)
Previous research indicates that individuals with congenital prosopagnosia (CP) fail to demonstrate significant priming from faces to related names in covert recognition tasks. The interpretation has been that CP precludes the ability to acquire face representations. In the current study we replicated this important finding. In addition, we also(More)