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Recent studies have highlighted the importance of the human microbiome in health and disease. However, for the most part the mechanisms by which the microbiome mediates disease, or protection from it, remain poorly understood. The keystone-pathogen hypothesis holds that certain low-abundance microbial pathogens can orchestrate inflammatory disease by(More)
Stickler and Marshall syndromes are dominantly inherited chondrodysplasias characterized by midfacial hypoplasia, high myopia, and sensorineural-hearing deficit. Since the characteristics of these syndromes overlap, it has been argued whether they are distinct entities or different manifestations of a single syndrome. Several mutations causing Stickler(More)
Certain low-abundance bacterial species, such as the periodontitis-associated oral bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis, can subvert host immunity to remodel a normally symbiotic microbiota into a dysbiotic, disease-provoking state. However, such pathogens also exploit inflammation to thrive in dysbiotic conditions. How these bacteria evade immunity while(More)
We previously described a cell surface anionic polysaccharide (APS) in Porphyromonas gingivalis that is required for cell integrity and serum resistance. APS is a phosphorylated branched mannan that shares a common epitope with posttranslational additions to some of the Arg-gingipains. This study aimed to determine the mechanism of anchoring of APS to the(More)
Aging is linked to greater susceptibility to chronic inflammatory diseases, several of which, including periodontitis, involve neutrophil-mediated tissue injury. Here we found that aging-associated periodontitis was accompanied by lower expression of Del-1, an endogenous inhibitor of neutrophil adhesion dependent on the integrin LFA-1, and by reciprocal(More)
Porphyromonas gingivalis is a low-abundance oral anaerobic bacterium implicated in periodontitis, a polymicrobial inflammatory disease, and the associated systemic conditions. However, the mechanism by which P. gingivalis contributes to inflammation and disease has remained elusive. Here we show that P. gingivalis, at very low colonization levels, triggers(More)
Periodontal disease has been suggested to be an important risk factor for preterm low birthweight (PLBW). Here we report a case-control study of 236 cases (infants < 37 wks and weighing < 2499 g) and a daily random sample of 507 controls (> or = 38 wks and weighing > or = 2500 g). Clinical periodontal indices were measured on the labor wards. Associated(More)
The transcriptomes of logarithmic- and stationary-phase Pseudomonas aeruginosa planktonic cultures and static biofilms of different stages of development were compared. Developing and confluent biofilm transcriptomes were found to be related to those of logarithmic- and stationary-phase planktonic cultures, respectively. In addition, a number of novel genes(More)
Proteases of Porphyromonas gingivalis are considered to be important virulence determinants of this periodontal bacterium. Several biochemical isoforms of arginine-specific proteases are derived from rgpA and rgpB. HRgpA is a heterodimer composed of the catalytic alpha chain noncovalently associated with a beta adhesin chain derived from the C terminus of(More)
A large proportion of recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss is due to mutations in the GJB2 gene encoding connexin 26 (Cx26), a component of a gap junction. Within different ethnic groups there are specific common recessive mutations, each with a relatively high carrier frequency, suggesting the possibility of heterozygous advantage. Carriers of the R143W(More)