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PURPOSE Lipofuscin accumulates in human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells with age and may be the main factor responsible for the increasing susceptibility of RPE to photo-oxidation with age. As the composition, absorption, and fluorescence of lipofuscin undergo age-related changes, the purpose of this study was to determine whether photoreactivity of(More)
PURPOSE A fluorescent component of lipofuscin, A2-E (N-retinylidene-N-retinylethanol-amine) has been shown to impair lysosomal function and to increase the intralysosomal pH of human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. In addition to its lysosomotropic properties A2-E is known to be photoreactive. The purpose of this study was to determine the(More)
PURPOSE Inhibition of TGF-beta reduces myofibroblast differentiation and fibrosis in the cornea. Determining the actions of distinct TGF-beta isoforms and their inhibitors during early corneal wound healing is an essential step in guiding therapeutic intervention. METHODS Bovine serum-free corneal cell and wounded organ cultures were challenged with a(More)
PURPOSE To identify the structure and composition of the tree shrew optic nerve to determine its potential as a model for glaucoma. METHODS Tree shrew optic nerves, aged 4 weeks to 5 years, were wax or cryoembedded for analysis of overall morphology and cellular (glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAP]) and extracellular matrix (collagen types I, III, IV,(More)
PURPOSE To identify the role of Notch signaling in the human corneal epithelium. METHODS Localization of Notch1, Notch2, Delta1, and Jagged1 in the human corneal epithelium was observed with the use of indirect immunofluorescence microscopy. Gene and protein expression of Notch receptors and ligands in human corneal epithelial cells was determined by(More)
PURPOSE To determine whether aging is accompanied by changes in aerobic photoreactivity of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) melanosomes isolated from human donors of different ages, and to compare the photoreactivity of aged melanosomes with that of RPE lipofuscin. METHODS Human RPE pigment granules were isolated from RPE cells pooled into groups(More)
Evidence is emerging for apoptosis gene expression in the lens during development. Therefore, here we used a filter array to assess expression of 243 apoptosis-related genes in the developing postnatal mouse lens using (33)P labelled cDNA synthesized from p7 and p14 mouse lenses. We demonstrated that 161 apoptosis-related genes were expressed at levels(More)
Studies indicate that attitudes predict traditional forms of bullying. Fewer studies have tested this for cyberbullying, in which the harassment is delivered via electronic communication technology. The current study represents the first direct comparison of attitudes toward the two forms of bullying among undergraduates (N=405). It also tested the(More)
Placenta growth factor (PlGF) has been implicated in both physiological and pathological angiogenesis; however, little is known about what regulates its expression. In this study, retinal microvascular endothelial cells and pericytes were exposed to varying concentrations of VEGF and glucose and PlGF expression measured by RT-PCR and Western blotting. Both(More)
PURPOSE To compare the fluorescence properties of autofluorescent granules generated by retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells in vitro with those of the lipofuscin of RPE in vivo. METHODS Cultured human RPE cells were maintained in basal medium for as long as 1 year, fed rod outer segments (ROS) daily for as long as 56 days, fed ROS in the presence and(More)