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Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blind registration in the developed world, and yet its pathogenesis remains poorly understood. Oxidative stress, which refers to cellular damage caused by reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI), has been implicated in many disease processes, especially age-related disorders. ROIs include free(More)
PURPOSE Age and advanced disease in the fellow eye are the two most important risk factors for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In this study, the authors investigated the relationship between these variables and the optical density of macular pigment (MP) in a group of subjects from a northern European population. METHODS The optical density of MP(More)
The retina resides in an environment that is primed for the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and resultant oxidative damage. The retina is one of the highest oxygen-consuming tissues in the human body. The highest oxygen levels are found in the choroid, but this falls dramatically across the outermost retina, creating a large gradient of oxygen(More)
Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) has been identified as one of the most potent of endogenous negative regulators of blood vessel growth in the body. Here we report that PEDF is able to inhibit growth factor-induced angiogenesis in microvascular endothelial cells through a novel pathway requiring cleavage and intracellular translocation of the(More)
Exposure of biological chromophores to ultraviolet radiation can lead to photochemical damage. However, the role of visible light, particularly in the blue region of the spectrum, has been largely ignored. To test the hypothesis that blue light is toxic to non-pigmented epithelial cells, confluent cultures of human primary retinal epithelial cells were(More)
Identifying the mechanisms determining species-specific life spans is a central challenge in understanding the biology of aging. Cellular stresses produce damage, that may accumulate and cause aging. Evolution theory predicts that long-lived species secure their longevity through investment in a more durable soma, including enhanced cellular resistance to(More)
The present concepts of the pathogenesis of AMD include cumulative light damage by oxidative processes in the macular photoreceptors as environmental co-factor for the development of AMD. The direct causative connection of this hypothesis has still to be established but wide circumstantial evidence from epidemiological and basic scientific investigations(More)
Emerging evidence indicates that the autofluorescent pigments that accumulate as lipofuscin in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells may reach levels that contribute to a decline in cell function. Since recent findings with respect to the origin, composition and adverse effects of RPE lipofuscin have informed our view of this material, the goal of this(More)
Although Wnt signaling is known to mediate multiple biological and pathological processes, its association with diabetic retinopathy (DR) has not been established. Here we show that retinal levels and nuclear translocation of beta-catenin, a key effector in the canonical Wnt pathway, were increased in humans with DR and in three DR models. Retinal levels of(More)