Learn More
Where tendons and ligaments are subject to compression, they are frequently fibrocartilaginous. This occurs at 2 principal sites: where tendons (and sometimes ligaments) wrap around bony or fibrous pulleys, and in the region where they attach to bone, i.e. at their entheses. Wrap-around tendons are most characteristic of the limbs and are commonly wider at(More)
The 2 major categories of idiopathic inflammatory arthritis are rheumatoid arthritis and the seronegative spondyloarthropathies. Whilst the synovium is the primary site of joint disease in the former, the primary site in the latter is less well defined. However, it has recently been proposed that enthesitis-associated changes in the spondyloarthropathies(More)
The structure, range of functions, blood supply, nerve supply, biochemical composition and development of tendons and ligaments are reviewed. The importance of their cells is often overlooked because of the obvious role of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in determining the physical properties of tendons and ligaments. However, it is emphasised that tendon(More)
Iliotibial band (ITB) syndrome is a common overuse injury in runners and cyclists. It is regarded as a friction syndrome where the ITB rubs against (and 'rolls over') the lateral femoral epicondyle. Here, we re-evaluate the clinical anatomy of the region to challenge the view that the ITB moves antero-posteriorly over the epicondyle. Gross anatomical and(More)
Intervertebral discs allow bending and twisting of the spine whilst resisting compression from gravity and muscle action, and are composite structures of the peripheral annulus fibrosus enclosing the nucleus pulposus. Their development is complex, involving several different connective tissue types, yet little is known of the developing extracellular matrix(More)
Although fasciae have long interested clinicians in a multitude of different clinical and paramedical disciplines, there have been few attempts to unite the ensuing diverse literature into a single review. The current article gives an anatomical perspective that extends from the gross to the molecular level. For expediency, it deals only with fascia in the(More)
Tendon entheses can be classed as fibrous or fibrocartilaginous according to the tissue present at the skeletal attachment site. The former can be "bony" or "periosteal", depending on whether the tendon is directly attached to bone or indirectly to it via the periosteum. At fibrocartilaginous entheses, the uncalcified fibrocartilage dissipates collagen(More)
We have sought to create, for the first time in a single comprehensive review, a modern synthesis of opinion on the cell, developmental, and molecular biology of tendons, ligaments, and their associated structures (tendon sheaths, vinculi, and retinacula). Particular attention has been paid to highlighting new data on the early development of tendons, the(More)
Based on a parallel study of a wide range of human tendons from embalmed dissecting room subjects and from a study of dried bones, an explanation is offered for the well known similarity in gross appearance between the markings left by certain tendons (e.g. those of the rotator cuff) and by articular surfaces on dried bones. Epiphyseal tendons leave(More)
This study provides a unique correlation between a molecular biological and biochemical analysis of the extracellular matrix (ECM) macromolecules in one half of 28 human Achilles tendons with an immunohistochemical study of the other. Both the insertion site and the mid-tendon were studied. The insertion (enthesis) is characterized by three distinctive(More)