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Water transport across cellular membranes is mediated by a family of membrane proteins known as AQPs (aquaporins). AQPs were first discovered on the basis of their ability to be inhibited by mercurial compounds, an experiment which has followed the AQP field ever since. Although mercury inhibition is most common, many AQPs are mercury insensitive. In(More)
The use of nanoparticles in consumer products, for example, cosmetics, sunscreens, and electrical devices, has increased tremendously over the past decade despite insufficient knowledge about their effects on human health and ecosystem function. Moreover, the amount of plastic waste products that enter natural ecosystems, such as oceans and lakes, is(More)
Plant plasma membrane aquaporins facilitate water flux into and out of plant cells, thus coupling their cellular function to basic aspects of plant physiology. Posttranslational modifications of conserved phosphorylation sites, changes in cytoplasmic pH and the binding of Ca(2+) can regulate water transport activity by gating the plasma membrane aquaporins.(More)
Membrane proteins are key players in all living cells. To achieve a better understanding of membrane protein function, significant amounts of purified protein are required for functional and structural analyses. Overproduction of eukaryotic membrane proteins, in particular, is thus an essential yet non-trivial task. Hence, improved understanding of factors(More)
Tracking techniques are vital for the understanding of the biology and ecology of organisms. While such techniques have provided important information on the movement and migration of large animals, such as mammals and birds, scientific advances in understanding the individual behaviour and interactions of small (mm-scale) organisms have been hampered by(More)
Most animals, including aquatic crustacean zooplankton, perform strong avoidance movements when exposed to a threat, such as ultraviolet radiation (UVR). We here show that the genera Daphnia and Bosmina instantly adjust their vertical position in the water in accordance with the present UVR threat, i.e., seek refuge in deeper waters, whereas other taxa show(More)
The understanding of consistent individual differences in behavior, often termed “personality,” for adapting and coping with threats and novel environmental conditions has advanced considerably during the last decade. However, advancements are almost exclusively associated with higher-order animals, whereas studies focusing on smaller aquatic organisms are(More)
Natural selection shapes behaviour in all organisms, but this is difficult to study in small, millimetre-sized, organisms. With novel labelling and tracking techniques, based on nanotechnology, we here show how behaviour in zooplankton (Daphnia magna) is affected by size, morphology and previous exposure to detrimental ultraviolet radiation (UVR). All(More)
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Nanowires (NWs) have unique electrical and optical properties of value for many applications including lighting, sensing, and energy harnessing. Consumer products containing NWs increase the risk of NWs being released in the environment, especially into aquatic ecosystems through sewage systems. Daphnia magna is a common, cosmopolitan freshwater organism(More)