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Intraluminal vesicles of multivesicular endosomes are either sorted for cargo degradation into lysosomes or secreted as exosomes into the extracellular milieu. The mechanisms underlying the sorting of membrane into the different populations of intraluminal vesicles are unknown. Here, we find that cargo is segregated into distinct subdomains on the endosomal(More)
Cells release different types of vesicular carriers of membrane and cytosolic components into the extracellular space. These vesicles are generated within the endosomal system or at the plasma membrane. Among the various kinds of secreted membrane vesicles, exosomes are vesicles with a diameter of 40-100 nm that are secreted upon fusion of multivesicular(More)
The amyloid precursor protein (APP) plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. During intracellular transport APP undergoes a series of proteolytic cleavages that lead to the release either of an amyloidogenic fragment called beta-amyloid (Abeta) or of a nonamyloidogenic secreted form consisting of the ectodomain of APP (APPsec). It is(More)
Myelin is a specialized membrane enriched in glycosphingolipids and cholesterol that contains a limited spectrum of proteins. We investigated the assembly of myelin components by oligodendrocytes and analyzed the role of lipid-protein interactions in this process. Proteolipid protein (PLP), the major myelin protein, was recovered from cultured(More)
Central nervous system myelin is a multilayered membrane sheath generated by oligodendrocytes for rapid impulse propagation. However, the underlying mechanisms of myelin wrapping have remained unclear. Using an integrative approach of live imaging, electron microscopy, and genetics, we show that new myelin membranes are incorporated adjacent to the axon at(More)
Reciprocal interactions between neurons and oligodendrocytes are not only crucial for myelination, but also for long-term survival of axons. Degeneration of axons occurs in several human myelin diseases, however the molecular mechanisms of axon-glia communication maintaining axon integrity are poorly understood. Here, we describe the signal-mediated(More)
Recent epidemiological studies show a strong reduction in the incidence of Alzheimer's disease in patients treated with cholesterol-lowering statins. Moreover, elevated Abeta42 levels and the varepsilon4 allele of the lipid-carrier apolipoprotein E are regarded as risk factors for sporadic and familial Alzheimer's disease. Here we demonstrate that the(More)
The transfer of antigens from oligodendrocytes to immune cells has been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Here, we show that oligodendrocytes secrete small membrane vesicles called exosomes, which are specifically and efficiently taken up by microglia both in vitro and in vivo. Internalisation of exosomes occurs by a macropinocytotic(More)
In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study, we investigated whether statins alter cholesterol metabolites and reduce Abeta levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of 44 patients with Alzheimer's disease. Individuals were given up to 80mg simvastatin daily or placebo for 26 weeks. Overall, simvastatin did not significantly alter cerebrospinal fluid(More)
beta-Secretase plays a critical role in beta-amyloid formation and thus provides a therapeutic target for Alzheimer's disease. Inhibitor design has usually focused on active-site binding, neglecting the subcellular localization of active enzyme. We have addressed this issue by synthesizing a membrane-anchored version of a beta-secretase transition-state(More)