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Flight speed is expected to increase with mass and wing loading among flying animals and aircraft for fundamental aerodynamic reasons. Assuming geometrical and dynamical similarity, cruising flight speed is predicted to vary as (body mass)(1/6) and (wing loading)(1/2) among bird species. To test these scaling rules and the general importance of mass and(More)
Two barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) flying in the Lund wind tunnel were filmed using synchronised high-speed cameras to obtain posterior, ventral and lateral views of the birds in horizontal flapping flight. We investigated wingbeat kinematics, body tilt angle, tail spread and angle of attack at speeds of 4-14 ms(-1). Wingbeat frequency showed a clear(More)
The wakes of two individual robins were measured in digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) experiments conducted in the Lund wind tunnel. Wake measurements were compared with each other, and with previous studies in the same facility. There was no significant individual variation in any of the measured quantities. Qualitatively, the wake structure and(More)
We examined the gliding flight performance of a jackdaw Corvus monedula in a wind tunnel. The jackdaw was able to glide steadily at speeds between 6 and 11 m s(-1). The bird changed its wingspan and wing area over this speed range, and we measured the so-called glide super-polar, which is the envelope of fixed-wing glide polars over a range of forward(More)
iii Abstract In early 2010, the Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) science collaboration initiated a study to investigate the physics potential of the experiment with a broad set of different beam, near-and far-detector configurations. Nine initial topics were identified as scientific areas that motivate construction of a long-baseline neutrino(More)
The wingbeat kinematics of a thrush nightingale Luscinia luscinia were measured for steady flight in a wind tunnel over a range of flight speeds (5-10 m s(-1)), and the results are interpreted and discussed in the context of a detailed, previously published, wake analysis of the same bird. Neither the wingbeat frequency nor wingbeat amplitude change(More)
The Belle detector was designed and constructed to carry out quantitative studies of rare B-meson decay modes with very small branching fractions using an asymmetric e þ e À collider operating at the U(4S) resonance, the KEK-B-factory. Such studies require data samples containing B10 7 B-meson decays. The Belle detector is configured around a 1:5 T(More)
Bird flight occurs over a range of Reynolds numbers (Re; 10(4) < or = Re < or = 10(5), where Re is a measure of the relative importance of inertia and viscosity) that includes regimes where standard aerofoil performance is difficult to predict, compute or measure, with large performance jumps in response to small changes in geometry or environmental(More)
The wingbeat kinematics and wake structure of a trained house martin in free, steady flight in a wind tunnel have been studied over a range of flight speeds, and compared and contrasted with similar measurements for a thrush nightingale and a pair of robins. The house martin has a higher aspect ratio (more slender) wing, and is a more obviously agile and(More)
A swallow flying in the Lund wind tunnel was observed from the side and from behind, by two synchronised high-speed video cameras. The side-view camera provided a record of the vertical position of a white mark, applied to the feathers behind and below the eye, from which the vertical acceleration was obtained. The rear-view camera provided measurements of(More)