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The ability to restrict gene expression or disruption to specific regions of the brain would enhance understanding of the molecular basis for brain development and function. For this purpose, brain region-restricted promoters are essential. Here we report the isolation of a DNA fragment containing the Emx1 gene promoter, which is responsible for dorsal(More)
Ca2+-dependent activator protein for secretion 2 (CAPS2/CADPS2) is a secretory granule-associated protein that is abundant at the parallel fiber terminals of granule cells in the mouse cerebellum and is involved in the release of neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), both of which are required for cerebellar development. The(More)
Autism, characterized by profound impairment in social interactions and communicative skills, is the most common neurodevelopmental disorder, and its underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Ca(2+)-dependent activator protein for secretion 2 (CADPS2; also known as CAPS2) mediates the exocytosis of dense-core vesicles, and the human CADPS2 is located(More)
Mutant Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) protein aggregation has been suggested as responsible for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), although the operative mediating factors are as yet unestablished. To evaluate the contribution of motoneuronal Ca2+-permeable (GluR2 subunit-lacking) alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA)-type(More)
The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, Mash2, has been shown to be necessary for the development of the spongiotrophoblast of the mature chorioallantoic placenta of the mouse. Here we show that Mash2 is transcribed during oogenesis and expressed throughout preimplantation development, only becoming restricted to the diploid trophoblast around the(More)
Neuronal activity alters calcium ion (Ca2+) dynamics in astrocytes, but the physiologic relevance of these changes is controversial. To examine this issue further, we generated an inducible transgenic mouse model in which the expression of an inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate absorbent, “IP3 sponge”, attenuates astrocytic Ca2+ signaling. Attenuated Ca2+ activity(More)
Transcranical direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a treatment known to ameliorate various neurological conditions and enhance memory and cognition in humans. tDCS has gained traction for its potential therapeutic value; however, little is known about its mechanism of action. Using a transgenic mouse expressing G-CaMP7 in astrocytes and a subpopulation of(More)
Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5), which is activated by binding to p35 or p39, is involved in synaptic plasticity and affects learning and memory formation. In Cdk5 knockout (KO) mice and p35 KO mice, brain development is severely impaired because neuronal migration is impaired and lamination is disrupted. To avoid these developmental confounders, we(More)
Bergmann glial cells are specialized astrocytes in the cerebellum. In the mature cerebellar molecular layer, Bergmann glial processes are closely associated with Purkinje cells, enclosing Purkinje cell dendritic synapses with a glial sheath. There is intensive gap junctional coupling between Bergmann glial processes, but their significance in cerebellar(More)
Ca(2+)-dependent activator protein for secretion 1 (CAPS1) plays a regulatory role in the dense-core vesicle (DCV) exocytosis pathway, but its functions at the cellular and synaptic levels in the brain are essentially unknown because of neonatal death soon after birth in Caps1 knock-out mice. To clarify the functions of the protein in the brain, we(More)