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BACKGROUND Treatment for chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is improving but not benefiting individuals unaware to be infected. To inform screening policies we assessed (1) the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-hepatitis C virus antibody (anti-HCV-Ab) prevalence for 34 European countries; and (2) the(More)
MOTIVATION Genetic analysis of HIV-1 is important not only for vaccine development, but also to guide treatment strategies, track the emergence of new viral variants and ensure that diagnostic assays are contemporary and fully optimized. However, most genotyping methods are laborious and complex, and involve the use of multiple software applications. Here,(More)
BACKGROUND The prevalence and the origin of HIV-1 subtype B, the most prevalent circulating clade among the long-term residents in Europe, have been studied extensively. However the spatial diffusion of the epidemic from the perspective of the virus has not previously been traced. RESULTS In the current study we inferred the migration history of HIV-1(More)
The long terminal repeat (LTR) transcriptional promoters of different human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 subtypes were inserted into the LAI molecular clone of subtype B. The viral genotypes represent seven subtypes (A, B, C, D, E, F, and G) and one circulating recombinant form (AG). We performed replication studies with this isogenic set of viruses(More)
The content of this joint guidance was developed by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) and the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) with the support of a technical advisory group composed of policy makers, service providers, civil society representatives and preventative health experts from throughout(More)