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Both fragile X syndrome and Rett syndrome are commonly associated with autism spectrum disorders and involve defects in synaptic plasticity. MicroRNA is implicated in synaptic plasticity because fragile X mental retardation protein was recently linked to the microRNA pathway. DNA methylation is also involved in synaptic plasticity since methyl CpG-binding(More)
To elucidate the epigenetic role of RNAi in mammals, we disrupted the gene for Eif2c2 (Ago2), which works as the sole slicer of RNAi in the Argonaute family. In mice, disruption of Eif2c2 leads to embryonic lethality early in development after the implantation stage. This phenotype is completely different from that in a previous report, but somewhat similar(More)
The CRISPR/Cas system, in which the Cas9 endonuclease and a guide RNA complementary to the target are sufficient for RNA-guided cleavage of the target DNA, is a powerful new approach recently developed for targeted gene disruption in various animal models. However, there is little verification of microinjection methods for generating knockout mice using(More)
Genome manipulation of human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells is essential to achieve their full potential as tools for regenerative medicine. To date, however, gene targeting in human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) has proven to be extremely difficult. Recently, an efficient genome manipulation technology using the RNA-guided DNase Cas9, the clustered(More)
Epigenetic changes are thought to lead to alterations in the property of cells, such as differentiation potential. Neural precursor cells (NPCs) differentiate only into neurons in the midgestational brain, yet they become able to generate astrocytes in the late stage of development. This differentiation-potential switch could be explained by epigenetic(More)
The RNA-guided endonuclease Cas9 cleaves double-stranded DNA targets complementary to the guide RNA and has been applied to programmable genome editing. Cas9-mediated cleavage requires a protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) juxtaposed with the DNA target sequence, thus constricting the range of targetable sites. Here, we report the 1.7 Å resolution crystal(More)
Members of the microRNA-29 (miR-29) family directly target the DNA methyltransferases, DNMT3A and DNMT3B. Disturbances in the expression levels of miR-29 have been linked to tumorigenesis and tumor aggressiveness. Members of the miR-29 family are currently thought to repress DNA methylation and suppress tumorigenesis by protecting against de novo(More)
Epigenetic regulation, including DNA methylation, plays an important role in several differentiation processes and possibly in adipocyte differentiation. To search for genes that show methylation change during adipogenesis, genome-wide DNA methylation analysis in insulin-induced adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cells was performed using a method called(More)
DNA methylation of promoters is linked to transcriptional silencing of protein-coding genes, and its alteration plays important roles in cancer formation. For example, hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes has been seen in some cancers. Alteration of methylation in the promoters of microRNAs (miRNAs) has also been linked to transcriptional changes in(More)
Epigenetic regulation including DNA methylation plays an important role in several differentiation processes. We profiled global DNA methylation in the neural differentiation of P19 embryonic carcinoma cells using a microarray-based method called MIAMI. We found a genome-wide demethylation of genes. This suggests demethylation rather than methylation is(More)