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The concept of canopy spectral invariants expresses the observation that simple algebraic combinations of leaf and canopy spectral transmittance and reflectance become wavelength independent and determine a small set of canopy structure specific variables. This set includes the canopy interceptance, the recollision and the escape probabilities. These(More)
Estimation of leaf area index (LAI) using spectral vegetation indices (SVIs) was studied based on data from 683 plots on two Scots pine and Norway spruce dominated sites in Finland. The SVIs studied included the normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI), the simple ratio (SR), and the reduced simple ratio (RSR), and were calculated from Land-sat ETM(More)
We developed a mobile remote sensing measurement facility for spectral and anisotropic reflectance measurements. We measured reflection properties (BRF) of over 100 samples from most common land cover types in boreal and subarctic regions. This extensive data set serves as a unique reference opportunity for developing in-5 terpretation algorithms for(More)
We describe the use of the nonparametric bootstrap to investigate the accuracy of current dipole localization from magnetoencephalography (MEG) studies of event-related neural activity. The bootstrap is well suited to the analysis of event-related MEG data since the experiments are repeated tens or even hundreds of times and averaged to achieve acceptable(More)
A strong positive correlation between vegetation canopy bidirec-tional reflectance factor (BRF) in the near infrared (NIR) spectral region and foliar mass-based nitrogen concentration (%N) has been reported in some temperate and boreal forests. This relationship , if true, would indicate an additional role for nitrogen in the climate system via its(More)
A new semi-physical forest reflectance model, PARAS, is presented in the paper. PARAS is a simple parameterization model for taking into account the effect of within-shoot scattering on coniferous canopy reflectance. Multiple scattering at the small scale represented by a shoot is a conifer-specific characteristic which causes the spectral signature of(More)
The spectral and directional reflection properties of pine forest understory in Suonenjoki, Finland were measured using a newly developed transportable field goniospectrometer under direct sunlight or plant lamp. The samples represent the most typical types in Finnish forests. Large differences between species were found. Wax-leaved shrubs such as(More)