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The concept of canopy spectral invariants expresses the observation that simple algebraic combinations of leaf and canopy spectral transmittance and reflectance become wavelength independent and determine a small set of canopy structure specific variables. This set includes the canopy interceptance, the recollision and the escape probabilities. These(More)
Estimation of leaf area index (LAI) using spectral vegetation indices (SVIs) was studied based on data from 683 plots on two Scots pine and Norway spruce dominated sites in Finland. The SVIs studied included the normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI), the simple ratio (SR), and the reduced simple ratio (RSR), and were calculated from Land-sat ETM(More)
A strong positive correlation between vegetation canopy bidirec-tional reflectance factor (BRF) in the near infrared (NIR) spectral region and foliar mass-based nitrogen concentration (%N) has been reported in some temperate and boreal forests. This relationship , if true, would indicate an additional role for nitrogen in the climate system via its(More)
A new semi-physical forest reflectance model, PARAS, is presented in the paper. PARAS is a simple parameterization model for taking into account the effect of within-shoot scattering on coniferous canopy reflectance. Multiple scattering at the small scale represented by a shoot is a conifer-specific characteristic which causes the spectral signature of(More)
The spectral and directional reflection properties of pine forest understory in Suonenjoki, Finland were measured using a newly developed transportable field goniospectrometer under direct sunlight or plant lamp. The samples represent the most typical types in Finnish forests. Large differences between species were found. Wax-leaved shrubs such as(More)
—The validation of moderate-resolution satellite leaf area index (LAI) products such as those operationally generated from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor data requires reference LAI maps developed from field LAI measurements and fine-resolution satellite data. Errors in field measurements and satellite data determine the(More)