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Plasma membrane compartments, delimited by transmembrane proteins anchored to the membrane skeleton (anchored-protein picket model), would provide the membrane with fundamental mosaicism because they would affect the movement of practically all molecules incorporated in the cell membrane. Understanding such basic compartmentalized structures of the cell(More)
In eubacteria, PriA helicase detects the stalled DNA replication forks. This critical role of PriA is ascribed to its ability to bind to the 3' end of a nascent leading DNA strand in the stalled replication forks. The crystal structures in complexes with oligonucleotides and the combination of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and mutagenesis reveal(More)
In the early stage of eukaryotic DNA replication, the template DNA is unwound by the MCM helicase, which is activated by forming a complex with the Cdc45 and GINS proteins. The eukaryotic GINS forms a heterotetramer, comprising four types of subunits. On the other hand, the archaeal GINS appears to be either a tetramer formed by two types of subunits in a(More)
The structural details of the essential entity of prion disease, fibril prion protein (PrP(Sc)), are still elusive despite the large body of evidence supporting the prion hypothesis. Five major working models of PrP(Sc) structure, which are not compatible with each other, have been proposed. However, no systematic evaluation has been performed on those(More)
DNA replication in archaea and eukaryotes is executed by family B DNA polymerases, which exhibit full activity when complexed with the DNA clamp, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). This replication enzyme consists of the polymerase and exonuclease moieties responsible for DNA synthesis and editing (proofreading), respectively. Because of the editing(More)
Protein structure data in the PDB (Protein Data Bank) were used to construct empirical scores of nucleotide-protein interactions. A simple strategy to evaluate the spatial distribution of protein atoms around the base moieties of nucleotides was applied to categorize adenine, guanine, nicotinamide and flavin nucleotide-binding sites. In addition to the(More)
The 3D structure of the ternary complex, consisting of DNA ligase, the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) clamp, and DNA, was investigated by single-particle analysis. This report presents the structural view, where the crescent-shaped DNA ligase with 3 distinct domains surrounds the central DNA duplex, encircled by the closed PCNA ring, thus forming(More)
Very long chain fatty acids are important components of plant lipids, suberins, and cuticular waxes. Trans-2-enoyl-CoA reductase (ECR) catalyses the fourth reaction of fatty acid elongation, which is NADPH dependent. In the present study, the expression of two cotton ECR (GhECR) genes revealed by quantitative RT-PCR analysis was up-regulated during cotton(More)
A fast heuristic graph-matching algorithm, COMPLIG, was devised to classify the small-molecule ligands in the Protein Data Bank (PDB), which are currently not properly classified on structure basis. By concurrently classifying proteins and ligands, we determined the most appropriate parameter for categorizing ligands to be more than 60% identity of atoms(More)
The archaeal and eukaryal clamp-loader and clamp proteins were investigated with the evolutionary trace method. The molecular phylogeny of the proteins suggested that the hetero-pentameric complex of the archaeal clamp-loader with two subunits (RFCL and RFCS) was not a preserved ancestral type, but a degenerated version of the eukaryal complex of five(More)