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Neonatal pain-related stress is associated with elevated salivary cortisol levels to age 18 months in children born very preterm, compared to full-term, suggesting early programming effects. Importantly, interactions between immune/inflammatory and neuroendocrine systems may underlie programming effects. We examined whether cortisol changes persist to(More)
BACKGROUND The genetic basis of dysfunctional immune responses in necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remains unknown. We hypothesized that variants in nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) and autophagy (ATG) genes modulate vulnerability to NEC. METHODS We genotyped a multi-center cohort of premature infants with and(More)
BACKGROUND Systemic inflammation, typically attributed to sepsis, has been repeatedly linked to adverse long-term outcomes in infants born prematurely. However, it is unclear whether other factors can contribute to potentially harmful systemic inflammatory responses. OBJECTIVE To determine the timing and extent of systemic inflammation occurring in(More)
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a common chronic lung disease and major risk factor for severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection among preterm infants. The Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is involved in oxidative injury responses in the lungs. Two non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms in the TLR4 gene have been associated with RSV(More)
BACKGROUND Preterm neonates are highly vulnerable to infection. OBJECTIVES To investigate the developmental contribution of prematurity, chorioamnionitis and antenatal corticosteroids (ANS) on the maturation of neonatal microbial pathogen recognition responses. METHODS Using standardized protocols, we assayed multiple inflammatory cytokine responses(More)