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Cells have evolved checkpoint responses to arrest or delay the cell cycle, activate DNA repair networks, or induce apoptosis after genomic perturbation. Cells have also evolved the translesion synthesis processes to tolerate genomic lesions by either error-free or error-prone repair. Here, we show that after a replication perturbation, cells exhibit a(More)
The replication checkpoint kinase Cds1 preserves genome integrity by stabilizing stalled replication forks. Cds1 targets substrates through its FHA domain. The Cds1 FHA domain interacts with Mus81, a subunit of the Mus81-Eme1 structure-specific endonuclease. We report here that Mus81 and Rhp51 are required for generating deletion mutations in fission yeast(More)
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive and lethal type of brain tumor. Standard treatment for GBM patients is surgery followed by radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy, but tumors always recur. Traditional therapies seem to fail because they eliminate only the bulk of the tumors and spare a population of stem-like cells termed tumor-initiating(More)
  • Mihoko Kai
  • 2016
Living cells experience DNA damage as a result of replication errors and oxidative metabolism, exposure to environmental agents (e.g., ultraviolet light, ionizing radiation (IR)), and radiation therapies and chemotherapies for cancer treatments. Accumulation of DNA damage can lead to multiple diseases such as neurodegenerative disorders, cancers, immune(More)
Replication mutants often exhibit a mutator phenotype characterized by point mutations, single base frameshifts, and the deletion or duplication of sequences flanked by homologous repeats. Mutation in genes encoding checkpoint proteins can significantly affect the mutator phenotype. Here, we use fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) as a model system to(More)
When replication forks collapse, Rad3 phosphorylates the checkpoint-clamp protein Rad9 in a manner that depends on Thr 225, a residue within the PCNA-like domain. The physiological function of Thr 225-dependent Rad9 phosphorylation, however, remains elusive. Here, we show that Thr 225-dependent Rad9 phosphorylation by Rad3 regulates DNA repair pathways. A(More)
Upon genotoxic stress and during normal S phase, ATM phosphorylates the checkpoint clamp protein Rad9 in a manner that depends on Ser272. Ser272 is the only known ATM-dependent phosphorylation site in human Rad9. However, Ser272 phosphorylation is not required for survival or checkpoint activation after DNA damage. The physiological function of Ser272(More)
Mutations in genome caretaker genes can induce genomic instability, which are potentially early events in tumorigenesis. Cells have evolved biological processes to cope with the genomic insults. One is a multifaceted response, termed checkpoint, which is a network of signaling pathways to coordinate cell cycle transition with DNA repair, activation of(More)
DNA damage occurs during DNA replication, spontaneous chemical reactions, and assaults by external or metabolism-derived agents. Therefore, all living cells must constantly contend with DNA damage. Cells protect themselves from these genotoxic stresses by activating the DNA damage checkpoint and DNA repair pathways. Coordination of these pathways requires(More)
DNA damage activates the cell cycle checkpoint to regulate cell cycle progression. The checkpoint clamp (Rad9-Hus1-Rad1 complex) is recruited to damage sites, and is required for checkpoint activation. While functions of the checkpoint clamp in checkpoint activation have been well studied, its functions in DNA repair regulation remain elusive. Here we show(More)