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Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21, a structural relative of FGF23 that regulates phosphate homeostasis, is a regulator of insulin-independent glucose transport in adipocytes and plays a role in the regulation of body weight. It also regulates ketogenesis and adaptive responses to starvation. We report that in a reconstituted receptor activation assay system(More)
Mast cells play as the major effector cells in immediate hypersensitivity through activation via the high-affinity IgE receptor, Fc epsilon RI, although many other functions have recently been discovered for this cell type. Given the broad array of proinflammatory mediators secreted from Fc epsilon RI-activated mast cells, as well as sensitization to(More)
SOX9 is a marker for stem cells in the intestine and overexpression of SOX9 is found in some types of cancer. However, the expression of SOX9 in normal stomach, precancerous intestinal metaplasia, and gastric carcinoma has not yet been clarified. This study aimed to investigate SOX9 expression in the corpus and pyloric regions of the normal human stomach,(More)
We report here that interleukin (IL)-13 protects BALB/c mice from myocarditis, whether induced by peptide immunization or by viral infection. In contrast to mild disease in IL-4 knockout (KO) BALB/c mice, IL-13 KO BALB/c mice developed severe coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3)-induced autoimmune myocarditis and myocarditogenic peptide-induced experimental autoimmune(More)
Both aldosterone and luminal vasopressin may contribute to the maintenance of acid-base homeostasis, but the functional relationship between these hormones is not well understood. The effects of luminal vasopressin likely result from its interaction with V1a receptors on the luminal membranes of intercalated cells in the collecting duct. Here, we found that(More)
A protective effect of interferon-gamma (IFNγ) has been described in a number of models of autoimmune disease, including experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM). Some reports have suggested that regulation of apoptosis in autoreactive lymphocytes mediate these protective functions. We examined the potential of IFNγ to regulate apoptotic mechanisms in(More)
Class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules are classically expressed on antigen-presenting cells of the hematopoietic lineage but have also been described on epithelial cells in association with autoimmunity. In this context, however, it remains debatable whether class II MHC molecules are the initiating event or rather the consequence of the(More)
Radiation-induced hair loss is a clinically important, but under-researched topic. The aim of the study was to develop an in vivo assay system for radiation-induced apoptosis in hair follicles to promote hair research and exploit new radioprotectors. BALB/c mice received total body irradiation (TBI) with gamma-rays at doses in the range from 8 to 16 Gy at 6(More)
The pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases is frequently studied in murine models, in which disease outcome is traditionally assessed by light microscopy. To determine whether digital imaging improves reliability of the histopathologic assessment, and whether flow cytometry is applicable directly on the murine thyroid, we studied 395 CBA/J mice 3 weeks after(More)
Hashimoto thyroiditis can be partially reproduced in mice by immunization with thyroglobulin or, more recently, thyroperoxidase. This experimental autoimmune thyroiditis (EAT) model has been extensively characterized during early disease phases (up to d 35 after immunization). By extending the analysis of EAT to 100 d after immunization, we noted a(More)