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Several lines of evidence have suggested that ganglioside GM1 stimulates neuronal sprouting and enhances the action of nerve growth factor (NGF), but its precise mechanism is yet to be elucidated. We report here that GM1 directly and tightly associates with Trk, the high-affinity tyrosine kinase-type receptor for NGF, and strongly enhances neurite outgrowth(More)
Although macrophages are thought to be crucial for the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases, how they are involved in disease progression from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is poorly understood. Here we report the unique histological structure termed "hepatic crown-like structures (hCLS)" in the mouse model of human NASH;(More)
Prolyl 4-hydroxylases (PHDs; PHD1, PHD2, and PHD3) are a component of cellular oxygen sensors that regulate the adaptive response depending on the oxygen concentration stabilized by hypoxia/stress-regulated genes transcription. In normoxic condition, PHD2 is required to stabilize hypoxia inducible factors. Silencing of PHD2 leads to the activation of(More)
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