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Pharmacological activation of the prosurvival kinases Akt and ERK-1/2 at reperfusion, after a period of lethal ischemia, protects the heart against ischemia-reperfusion injury. We hypothesized that ischemic preconditioning (IPC) protects the heart by phosphorylating the prosurvival kinases Akt and ERK-1/2 at reperfusion. In isolated perfused Sprague-Dawley(More)
Brief intermittent episodes of ischemia and reperfusion, at the onset of reperfusion after a prolonged period of ischemia, confer cardioprotection, a phenomenon termed "ischemic postconditioning" (Postcond). We hypothesized that this phenomenon may just represent a modified form of reperfusion that activates the reperfusion injury salvage kinase (RISK)(More)
Ischemic preconditioning results in an immediate phase of protection against lethal ischemia/reperfusion injury that is comprised of both irreversible necrosis and programmed cell death, apoptosis. We hypothesized that preconditioning may activate putative anti-apoptotic pathways, through the induction of either phosphatidyl inositol 3-OH kinase (PI3(More)
Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), a gut incretin hormone that stimulates insulin secretion, also activates antiapoptotic signaling pathways such as phosphoinositide 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase in pancreatic and insulinoma cells. Since these kinases have been shown to protect against myocardial injury, we hypothesized that GLP-1 could(More)
Ischaemia-reperfusion injury causes cell death by both necrosis and apoptosis. Caspase activation is a major event in apoptosis. We therefore examined the effect of caspase inhibitors during reperfusion upon myocardial infarction. Rat isolated hearts were subjected to 35 min coronary occlusion and 120 min reperfusion. Treatment groups were perfused with(More)
In the late 19th century, a number of investigators were working on perfecting isolated heart model, but it was Oscar Langendorff who, in 1895, pioneered the isolated perfused mammalian heart. Since that time, the Langendorff preparation has evolved and provided a wealth of data underpinning our understanding of the fundamental physiology of the heart: its(More)
Heat shock proteins (hsp) represent a group of chaperones which protects the cells against a diversity of stresses. It has been demonstrated that hsp27 is constitutively present in cells where it plays an important role in different cytoprotective processes which ultimately inhibit cell death. We investigated the response of the isolated perfused mouse(More)
The present study investigated whether protein kinase C (PKC) plays a role in ischemic preconditioning in the rat heart. Chelerythrine, a specific antagonist of PKC, and 1,2-dioctanoyl-sn-glycerol (DOG), a diacylglycerol analogue and specific antagonist of PKC, were used to determine whether preconditioning could be blocked or triggered, respectively.(More)
BACKGROUND The dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors Sitagliptin and Vildagliptin lower blood glucose by augmenting endogenous levels of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), an incretin which also confers cardioprotection. As such, we hypothesized that treatment with DPP-4 inhibitors are also cardioprotective. METHODS In ex vivo experiments: Male(More)
PURPOSE Clinical and experimental investigations demonstrated that metformin, a widely used anti-diabetic drug, exhibits cardioprotective properties against myocardial infarction. Interestingly, metformin was previously shown to increase the expression of PGC-1α a key controller of energy metabolism in skeletal muscle, which is down-regulated in diabetic(More)