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Two experiments investigated the long-term effects of retrieval practice. In the retrieval-practice procedure, selected items from a previously studied list are repeatedly recalled. The typical retrieval-practice effects are considerably enhanced memory for practiced items accompanied by low levels of recall, relative to baseline, for previously studied(More)
The description of the heterogeneous phenomenological, pathophysiological, and etiological nature of schizophrenia is under way; however, the relationships between heterogeneity levels are still unclear. We performed a robust cross-sectional study, including a systematic neuropsychological battery, assessment of clinical symptoms, neurological soft signs,(More)
A feature of schizophrenia is disrupted executive function leading to learning difficulties and memory problems. In two experiments we measured the ability of patients with schizophrenia to suppress irrelevant parts of acquired information by intentional (executive) and autonomic (non-executive) strategies. In the first experiment using directed forgetting(More)
The testing effect refers to the phenomenon that repeated retrieval of memories promotes better long-term retention than repeated study. To investigate the neural correlates of the testing effect, we used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging methods while participants performed a cued recall task. Prior to the neuroimaging experiment,(More)
We present data on the language of space in Hungarian individuals with Williams syndrome (WS; 19 in the first, 15 in the second study, between 8; and 21; 11) and a verbal control (VC) group of typically developing (TD; 19 in the first, 15 in the second study, between 3;5 and 10;7) children from: (1) a study of elicited production and comprehension of(More)
BACKGROUND For treatment-refractory Obsessive-Compulsive-Disorder (OCD) patients, anterior capsulotomy is a potential therapy. We investigated what kinds of cognitive deficits treatment-refractory patients have and how anterior capsulotomy modifies their clinical and cognitive profiles. METHODS Ten treatment-refractory OCD patients were examined in two(More)
Six experiments examined the proposal that an item of long-term knowledge can be simultaneously inhibited and activated. In 2 directed forgetting experiments items to-be-forgotten were found to be inhibited in list-cued recall but activated in lexical decision tasks. In 3 retrieval practice experiments, unpracticed items from practiced categories were found(More)
Thirteen male patients with schizophrenia and thirteen male normal control subjects were compared by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on volumes of the straight gyrus (SG), anterior cingulate gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, hippocampus, third ventricle, cavum septi pellucidi, total brain volume and intracranial volume. In addition, neuropsychological tasks(More)
Several biomarkers are used in confirming the diagnosis of cognitive disorders. This study evaluates whether the level of these markers after heart surgery correlates with the development of cognitive dysfunction, which is a frequent complication of cardiac interventions. Concentrations of amyloid-β peptide, tau, and S100β in the cerebro-spinal fluid were(More)
Williams syndrome (WMS), a rare neurogenetic disorder, has been in the forefront of research in cognitive psychology for the last 10 years. Studies of grammatical development in 14 Hungarian WMS children are presented: they were examined on tasks testing regular and irregular morphology; measures of digit span were also obtained. Results on the production(More)