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Observers made numerical judgments of the apparent viscosities of silicone liquids whose absolute viscosities ranged from 10.3 to 95,000 centipoises. Judgments were made by three procedures: shaking or turning a bottle containing the liquid, stirring the liquid with a rod with the eyes blindfolded, and stirring with the eyes open. For all these methods of(More)
Simple reaction times (SRT) to eight substances belonging to the four classical taste families were evaluated. The same eight subjects participated in all experiments. The functional relationship between SRT and concentration for group and for individual data were examined. Equations presented by different authors to describe RT data are discussed. The(More)
The effect of ethanol in modulating the intensity and duration of the perceived sourness induced by citric acid was studied. Magnitude Estimation-Converging Limits method was applied to rate the sourness of seven solutions (3-70 mM) of citric acid in aqueous solution presented alone and mixed with 8% V/V or 15% V/V ethanol. Dynamic sourness ratings of 5,(More)
The dependence of saturation on the level of reflectance of colored surfaces was measured by numerical estimation and by matching judgments. Four sets of chromatic samples, one for each hue--blue, 460 nm, green, 510 nm, yellow, 580 nm, and red, 620 nm--within a range between 4% and 65% reflectance, were presented to the observers. The largest changes of(More)
The level of reflectance of pigmented surfaces observed in daylight affects saturation growth in different ways, depending on the wavelength of the samples. Numerical and matching judgments collected in previous experiments were replotted in families of monochromatic (constant hue) saturation power functions for blue, green, yellow, and red. For each hue(More)