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BACKGROUND Skeletal muscle of trunk, limbs and tongue develops from a small population of cells that originates from somites. Although promoters and inhibitors of muscle differentiation have been isolated, nothing is known about how the amplification of the muscle precursor pool is regulated; this amplification provides muscle mass during development.(More)
condense, and the organelles and plasma membrane retain their integrity in a process Kerr and his colleagues and Martin C. Raff Developmental Neurobiology Programme named apoptosis. The dead cells or their fragments are rapidly phagocytosed by neighboring cells or macro-phages before there is any leakage of the contents of the cells, and thus they do not(More)
Programmed cell death (PCD) plays an important part in animal development. It is responsible for eliminating the cells between developing digits, for example, and is involved in hollowing out solid structures to create cavities (reviewed in [1] [2]). There are many cases, however, where PCD occurs in developing tissues but its function is unknown. Important(More)
Breast cancer progression may be affected by various cellular components expressed by the tumor cells and/or by microenvironmental factors. Many studies report the correlation between breast cancer progression and monocyte infiltration into the tumor site. We have identified recently the CC chemokine regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and(More)
A splicing mutation in the ikbkap gene causes Familial Dysautonomia (FD), affecting the IKAP protein expression levels and proper development and function of the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Here we attempted to elucidate the role of IKAP in PNS development in the chick embryo and found that IKAP is required for proper axonal outgrowth, branching, and(More)
The epidermis is a multilayered squamous epithelium in which dividing basal cells withdraw from the cell cycle and progressively differentiate as they are displaced toward the skin surface. Eventually, the cells lose their nucleus and other organelles to become flattened squames, which are finally shed from the surface as bags of cross-linked keratin(More)
Lipid-based nanoparticles (LNPs) are widely used for the delivery of drugs and nucleic acids. Although most of them are considered safe, there is confusing evidence in the literature regarding their potential cellular toxicities. Moreover, little is known about the recovery process cells undergo after a cytotoxic insult. We have previously studied the(More)
Neural tube (NT) closure is a multifactorial process that involves yet unresolved molecular mechanisms. It had been shown previously that high levels of nitric oxide (NO) block the process of NT closure in the chick embryo by inhibiting methionine synthase (MS). The MS inhibition and its effect on NT closure could be alleviated by folic acid, suggesting the(More)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating disease, characterized by extremely rapid loss of motor neurons. Our studies over the last decade have established CD4(+) T cells as important players in central nervous system maintenance and repair. Those results, together with recent findings that CD4(+) T cells play a protective role in mouse models(More)
Deficiency in the IKAP/Elp1 protein leads to the recessive sensory autosomal congenital neuropathy which is called familial dysautonomia (FD). This protein was originally identified as a role player in transcriptional elongation being a subunit of the RNAPII transcriptional Elongator multi-protein complex. Subsequently, IKAP/Elp1 was shown to play various(More)