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The mechanisms by which embryonic stem (ES) cells self-renew while maintaining the ability to differentiate into virtually all adult cell types are not well understood. Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are transcriptional repressors that help to maintain cellular identity during metazoan development by epigenetic modification of chromatin structure. PcG(More)
Covalent modification of histones is important in regulating chromatin dynamics and transcription. One example of such modification is ubiquitination, which mainly occurs on histones H2A and H2B. Although recent studies have uncovered the enzymes involved in histone H2B ubiquitination and a 'cross-talk' between H2B ubiquitination and histone methylation,(More)
The p53 tumor-suppressor protein prevents cancer development through various mechanisms, including the induction of cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis, and the maintenance of genome stability. We have identified a p53-inducible gene named TIGAR (TP53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator). TIGAR expression lowered fructose-2,6-bisphosphate levels in cells,(More)
In many higher organisms, 5%-15% of histone H2A is ubiquitylated at lysine 119 (uH2A). The function of this modification and the factors involved in its establishment, however, are unknown. Here we demonstrate that uH2A occurs on the inactive X chromosome in female mammals and that this correlates with recruitment of Polycomb group (PcG) proteins belonging(More)
During neocortical development, neural precursor cells (NPCs, or neural stem cells) produce neurons first and astrocytes later. Although the timing of the fate switch from neurogenic to astrogenic is critical for determining the number of neurons, the mechanisms are not fully understood. Here, we show that the polycomb group complex (PcG) restricts(More)
Polycomb-repressive complex 1 (PRC1) has a central role in the regulation of heritable gene silencing during differentiation and development. PRC1 recruitment is generally attributed to interaction of the chromodomain of the core protein Polycomb with trimethyl histone H3K27 (H3K27me3), catalyzed by a second complex, PRC2. Unexpectedly we find that RING1B,(More)
Changes in phosphorylation of the carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II (RNAP) are associated with transcription initiation, elongation and termination. Sites of active transcription are generally characterized by hyperphosphorylated RNAP, particularly at Ser 2 residues, whereas inactive or poised genes may lack RNAP or may bind Ser(More)
The retinoblastoma protein (pRB) plays an important role in the control of cell proliferation, apparently by binding to and regulating cellular transcription factors such as E2F. Here we describe the characterization of a cDNA clone that encodes a protein with properties of E2F. This clone, RBP3, was identified by the ability of its gene product to interact(More)
Macromolecular interactions define many biological phenomena. Although genetic methods are available to identify novel protein-protein and DNA-protein interactions, no genetic system has thus far been described to identify molecules or mutations that dissociate known interactions. Herein, we describe genetic systems that detect such events in the yeast(More)
We describe here a mouse line bearing a bovine keratin K5Cre recombinase transgene. These mice showed a dual pattern of Cre-mediated recombination, depending on the parent transmitting the transgene. In paternal transmission, recombination occurred specifically in the skin and stratified epithelia-as expected according to the expression of endogenous(More)