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BACKGROUND The role of papillary muscle (PM) in the generation and maintenance of reentry is unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS Computerized mapping (477 bipolar electrodes, 1.6-mm resolution) was performed in fibrillating right ventricles (RVs) of swine in vitro. During ventricular fibrillation (VF), reentrant wave fronts often transiently anchored to the PM.(More)
BACKGROUND Multiple excitation wavelets are present during ventricular fibrillation (VF). The underlying wavelet organization of VF is unclear. Phase singularities (PSs)-locations of ambiguous activation state-underlie reentry and wavelet splitting and represent the sources of VF. Understanding the mechanisms of PS formation might be important in the(More)
BACKGROUND The past thirty-five years have seen an intense search for the molecular mechanisms underlying calcium-induced calcium-release (CICR) in cardiac myocytes, with voltage clamp (VC) studies being the leading tool employed. Several VC protocols including lowering of extracellular calcium to affect Ca²(+) loading of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR),(More)
The intramural dynamics of ventricular fibrillation (VF) remain poorly understood. Recent investigations have suggested that stable intramural reentry may underlie the mechanisms of VF. We performed optical mapping studies of VF in isolated swine right ventricles (RVs) and left ventricles (LVs). Nine RV walls were cut obliquely in their distal edge exposing(More)
BACKGROUND Electrophysiological changes promoting arrhythmias during acute regional ischemia/reperfusion are challenging to study in intact cardiac tissue because of complex 3-dimensional myocardial and vascular geometry. We characterized electrophysiological alterations and arrhythmias during regional ischemia/reperfusion in a simpler 2-dimensional(More)
BACKGROUND During development, AV conduction switches from base-to-apex to apex-to-base conduction after emergence of the conduction system. We hypothesize that after this transition, the bulk of the AV ring, although no longer required for AV conduction, remains transiently able to conduct, providing a potential arrhythmia substrate. We studied AV(More)
T-wave alternans, an important arrhythmogenic factor, has recently been described in human fetuses. Here we sought to determine whether alternans can be induced in the embryonic mouse hearts, despite its underdeveloped sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and, if so, to analyze the response to pharmacological and autonomic interventions. Immunohistochemistry(More)
Rate-dependent effects on the C a2+ sub-system in a rat ventricular myocyte are investigated. Here, we employ a deterministic mathematical model describing various C a2+ signalling pathways under voltage clamp (VC) conditions, to better understand the important role of calmodulin (CaM) in modulating the key control variables C a2+/calmodulin-dependent(More)
A perceived distinctive feature of cryoablation is the stability (cryoadherence) of the catheter tip during cold temperatures at the desired location, even during tachycardia. We report the case report of a young patient with a parahisian accessory pathway where stability of the ablation catheter was not achieved despite using the cryocatheter with a(More)