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Huntington's disease (HD) inclusions are stained with anti-ubiquitin and anti-proteasome antibodies. This, together with proteasome activity studies on transfected cells, suggest that an impairment of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) may be key in HD pathogenesis. To test whether proteasome activity is impaired in vivo, we performed enzymatic assays(More)
The presence of intracellular ubiquitylated inclusions in neurodegenerative disorders and the role of the ubiquitin/proteasome system (UPS) in degrading abnormal hazardous proteins have given rise to the hypothesis that UPS-impairment underlies neurodegenerative processes. However, this remains controversial for polyglutamine disorders such as Huntington(More)
Prolonged seizures [status epilepticus (SE)] constitute a neurological emergency that can permanently damage the brain. SE results from a failure of the normal mechanisms to terminate seizures; in particular, γ-amino butyric acid-mediated inhibition, and benzodiazepine anticonvulsants are often incompletely effective. ATP acts as a fast neurotransmitter via(More)
Dysregulation of gene expression is one of the mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of Huntington's disease (HD). Here, we examined whether mutant huntingtin regulates the levels of PH domain leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase 1 (PHLPP1), a phosphatase that specifically dephosphorylates Akt at Ser473. Our results show decreased PHLPP1 protein(More)
Aggregation-prone proteins have been suggested to overwhelm and impair the ubiquitin/proteasome system (UPS) in polyglutamine (polyQ) disorders, such as Huntington's disease (HD). Overexpression of an N-terminal fragment of mutant huntingtin (N-mutHtt), an aggregation-prone polyQ protein responsible for HD, obstructs the UPS in cellular models. Furthermore,(More)
P2X7 receptors are involved not only in physiological functions but also in pathological brain processes. Although an increasing number of findings indicate that altered receptor expression has a causative role in neurodegenerative diseases and cancer, little is known about how expression of P2rx7 gene is controlled. Here we reported the first molecular and(More)
Huntington's disease (HD) and eight additional inherited neurological disorders are caused by CAG triplet-repeat expansions leading to expanded polyglutamine-sequences in their respective proteins. These triplet-CAG repeat disorders have in common the formation of aberrant intraneuronal proteinaceous inclusions containing the expanded polyglutamine(More)
PURPOSE ATP is an essential transmitter/cotransmitter in neuron function and pathophysiology and has recently emerged as a potential contributor to prolonged seizures (status epilepticus) through the activation of the purinergic ionotropic P2X7 receptor (P2X7R). Increased P2X7R expression has been reported in the hippocampus, and P2X7R antagonists reduced(More)
Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) stimulates a [Ca(2+)](i) increase via specific ionotropic receptors, termed P2X receptors, in rat midbrain presynaptic terminals. A microfluorimetric technique enabled study of the [Ca(2+)](i) increase in isolated single synaptic terminals, showing that 33.4+/-2.5% of them responded to ATP. Immunological studies carried out,(More)
Endocannabinoids act as neuromodulatory and neuroprotective cues by engaging type 1 cannabinoid receptors. These receptors are highly abundant in the basal ganglia and play a pivotal role in the control of motor behaviour. An early downregulation of type 1 cannabinoid receptors has been documented in the basal ganglia of patients with Huntington's disease(More)