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Prolonged seizures [status epilepticus (SE)] constitute a neurological emergency that can permanently damage the brain. SE results from a failure of the normal mechanisms to terminate seizures; in particular, γ-amino butyric acid-mediated inhibition, and benzodiazepine anticonvulsants are often incompletely effective. ATP acts as a fast neurotransmitter via(More)
The precise mechanism by which mutant huntingtin elicits its toxicity remains unknown. However, synaptic alterations and increased susceptibility to neuronal death are known contributors to Huntington's disease (HD) symptomatology. While decreased metabolism has long been associated with HD, recent findings have surprisingly demonstrated reduced neuronal(More)
Functional ionotropic nucleotidic receptors responding to diadenosine pentaphospate and nicotinic receptors responding to epibatidine coexpress in 19% of the total rat midbrain cholinergic terminals, as determined by the combination of immunological and microfluorimetric techniques. Activation of each independent receptor induces the intrasynaptosomal(More)
Diadenosine pentaphosphate (Ap5A) and adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) stimulate a intrasynaptosomal calcium concentration [Ca(2+)](i) increase via specific purinergic receptors in rat midbrain synaptosomes, although nothing is known about their distribution in presynaptic terminals. A microfluorimetric technique to measure [Ca(2+)](i) increase using the dye(More)
Aggregation-prone proteins have been suggested to overwhelm and impair the ubiquitin/proteasome system (UPS) in polyglutamine (polyQ) disorders, such as Huntington's disease (HD). Overexpression of an N-terminal fragment of mutant huntingtin (N-mutHtt), an aggregation-prone polyQ protein responsible for HD, obstructs the UPS in cellular models. Furthermore,(More)
PURPOSE ATP is an essential transmitter/cotransmitter in neuron function and pathophysiology and has recently emerged as a potential contributor to prolonged seizures (status epilepticus) through the activation of the purinergic ionotropic P2X7 receptor (P2X7R). Increased P2X7R expression has been reported in the hippocampus, and P2X7R antagonists reduced(More)
Prolonged seizures are amongst the most common neurological emergencies. Status epilepticus is a state of continuous seizures that is life-threatening and prompt termination of status epilepticus is critical to protect the brain from permanent damage. Frontline treatment comprises parenteral administration of anticonvulsants such as lorazepam that(More)
The P2X7 receptor is an ATP-gated non-selective cation-permeable ionotropic receptor selectively expressed in neurons and glia in the brain. Activation of the P2X7 receptor has been found to modulate neuronal excitability in the hippocampus and it has also been linked to microglia activation and neuroinflammatory responses. Accordingly, interest developed(More)
There is solid evidence indicating that hyperphosphorylated tau protein, the main component of intracellular neurofibrillary tangles present in the brain of Alzheimer disease patients, plays a key role in progression of this disease. However, it has been recently reported that extracellular unmodified tau protein may also induce a neurotoxic effect on(More)
Endocannabinoids act as neuromodulatory and neuroprotective cues by engaging type 1 cannabinoid receptors. These receptors are highly abundant in the basal ganglia and play a pivotal role in the control of motor behaviour. An early downregulation of type 1 cannabinoid receptors has been documented in the basal ganglia of patients with Huntington's disease(More)