Miguel Constância

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Imprinted genes in mammals are expressed from only one of the parental chromosomes, and are crucial for placental development and fetal growth. The insulin-like growth factor II gene (Igf2) is paternally expressed in the fetus and placenta. Here we show that deletion from the Igf2 gene of a transcript (P0) specifically expressed in the labyrinthine(More)
Plasticity in developmental programming has evolved in order to provide the best chances of survival and reproductive success to the organism under changing environments. Environmental conditions that are experienced in early life can profoundly influence human biology and long-term health. Developmental origins of health and disease and life-history(More)
Imprinted genes and their control elements occur in clusters in the mammalian genome and carry epigenetic modifications. Observations from imprinting disorders suggest that epigenetic modifications throughout the clusters could be under regional control. However, neither the elements that are responsible for regional control, nor its developmental timing,(More)
DNA methylation is usually associated with transcriptional silencing, but in the imprinted mouse Igf2 gene, the paternally expressed copy is methylated in two discrete differentially methylated regions (DMRs). DMR1 is located upstream of the fetal promoters and has been shown to be a methylation sensitive silencer. Here we examine the role of the intragenic(More)
Genomic imprinting is limited to a subset of genes that play critical roles in fetal growth, development and behaviour. One of the most studied imprinted genes encodes insulin-like growth factor 2, and aberrant imprinting and DNA methylation of this gene is associated with the growth disorders Beckwith-Wiedemann and Silver-Russell syndromes and many human(More)
Igf2 and H19 are reciprocally imprinted genes on mouse distal chromosome 7. They share several regulatory elements, including a differentially methylated region (DMR) upstream of H19 that is paternally methylated throughout development. The cis-acting sequence requirements for targeting DNA methylation to the DMR remain unknown; however, it has been(More)
Evidence is emerging that the ability of the placenta to supply nutrients to the developing fetus adapts according to fetal demand. To examine this adaptation further, we tested the hypothesis that placental maternofetal transport of calcium adapts according to fetal calcium requirements. We used a mouse model of fetal growth restriction, the(More)
OBJECTIVE We have hypothesized that variation in imprinted growth-promoting fetal genes may affect maternal glucose concentrations in pregnancy. To test this hypothesis we evaluated the effects of fetal disruption of murine H19(Delta13) on maternal glucose concentrations in pregnancy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Experimental mice were pregnant females(More)
Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) and the transformation related protein 53 (Trp53) are potent regulators of cell growth and metabolism in development and cancer. In vitro evidence suggests several mechanistic pathway interactions. Here, we tested whether loss of function of p53 leads to IGF2 ligand pathway dependency in vivo. Developmental lethality(More)