Miguel A. Arroyo

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Several studies have reported an increasing number of non-CRF01_AE infections in high-risk groups in Thailand suggesting a more complex HIV-1 epidemic. This study assessed the complexity of the HIV epidemic among high-risk clients tested for HIV-1 at the Thai Red Cross Anonymous Clinic (TRCAC) between July 1, 2006 and February 28, 2007. HIV-1 genotypes were(More)
BACKGROUND Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtypes differ in biological characteristics that may affect pathogenicity. METHODS We determined the HIV-1 subtype-specific rates of disease progression among 350 HIV-1 seroconverters. Subtype, viral load, and CD4(+) cell count were determined. Cox proportional hazards regression modeling was used(More)
HIV-1 diversity, frequency of recombinants, and dual infection were determined in two populations with different HIV risk behavior. A high-risk cohort of 600 female bar workers and a normal-risk population of 1,108 antenatal clinic attendees and blood donors were recruited. Behavioral data were assessed and blood for HIV- 1 diagnosis and genotyping was(More)
Here we explore associations between HLA variation and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) acquisition and disease progression in a community cohort in Mbeya, Tanzania, a region that, despite harboring high rates of HIV-1 infection, remains understudied. African-specific allele HLA-A*74:01 was associated with decreased risk of infection (odds ratio(More)
OBJECTIVE To characterize HIV-1 strains in a potential vaccine trial cohort (CODE) in the Mbeya region of southwest Tanzania. DESIGN Study volunteers (n = 3096) were recruited from urban areas in Mbeya Town, using two different recruitment strategies, and in a nearby rural village. METHODS Cryopreserved plasma from 507 HIV-1 prevalent cases was the(More)
The RV144 clinical trial showed the partial efficacy of a vaccine regimen with an estimated vaccine efficacy (VE) of 31% for protecting low-risk Thai volunteers against acquisition of HIV-1. The impact of vaccine-induced immune responses can be investigated through sieve analysis of HIV-1 breakthrough infections (infected vaccine and placebo recipients). A(More)
HIV-1 vertical transmission in Puerto Rico has decreased significantly due to the implementation of antiviral therapy. Several studies have shown that the phenotype of the HIV-1 isolates initially recovered from infected infants has generally been one that replicates rapidly, infects macrophages, and preferentially use the CCR5 coreceptor. Our hypothesis is(More)
In Thailand, new HIV-1 infections are largely concentrated in certain risk groups such as men who have sex with men (MSM), where annual incidence may be as high as 12% per year. The paucity of information on the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 in Thai MSM limits progress in understanding the epidemic and developing new prevention methods. We evaluated HIV-1(More)
In this study, HIV-1 variants from a cohort of forty-eight Puerto Rican pregnant women and their 50 infants (one had triplets), were isolated and characterized, in order to determine the type of HIV-1 variants that are predominantly transmitted. All were enrolled in the prenatal AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) and received anti-retroviral therapy. Fifteen(More)
HIV-1 is endemic in Tanzania where three different subtypes, A, C, and D, have been identified. Information on HIV-1 genetic diversity is crucial to define requirements for an effective vaccine, in regions where HIV-1 vaccine trials are planned. To define the subtype distribution of HIV-1 in the Mbeya region of southwest Tanzania, peripheral blood(More)