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Previous studies in animals have revealed effects of both prenatal and current testosterone on brain organization and behavior. However, it is unclear how these effects translate to the human brain. Here, we refine previous procedures to clarify the relative contribution of prenatal versus current testosterone indices to cognitive function. Sixty-nine(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the association between the incidence of HIV-1 infection and the genetic complexity of HIV-1 strains in 2 geographic strata within Rakai District, Uganda. METHODS Study volunteers with recent HIV-1 infections during the period 1997 through 2003 were recruited from 10 communities that were geographically stratified as a main road(More)
Here we explore associations between HLA variation and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) acquisition and disease progression in a community cohort in Mbeya, Tanzania, a region that, despite harboring high rates of HIV-1 infection, remains understudied. African-specific allele HLA-A*74:01 was associated with decreased risk of infection (odds ratio(More)
The RV144 clinical trial showed the partial efficacy of a vaccine regimen with an estimated vaccine efficacy (VE) of 31% for protecting low-risk Thai volunteers against acquisition of HIV-1. The impact of vaccine-induced immune responses can be investigated through sieve analysis of HIV-1 breakthrough infections (infected vaccine and placebo recipients). A(More)
Here we explore the association between killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR)/HLA and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) acquisition with different viral subtypes circulating in East Africa. In the prospective Cohort Development (CODE) cohort (Mbeya, Tanzania), carriers of KIR3DS1 and its putative ligand (HLA-A or HLA-B Bw4-80Ile alleles)(More)
Characterization of HIV-1 subtype diversity in regions where vaccine trials are conducted is critical for vaccine development and testing. This study describes the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 within a tea-plantation community cohort in Kericho, Kenya. Sixty-three incident infections were ascertained in the HIV and Malaria Cohort Study conducted in(More)
Mucormycosis fungemia is rarely documented since blood cultures are nearly always negative. We describe a case of Mucor circinelloides fungemia in a patient with a history of a sinus infection, sarcoidosis, and IgG deficiency. The identity of the isolate was supported by its microscopic morphology and its ability to convert into yeast forms under anaerobic(More)
BACKGROUND We examined the association and interaction between maternal viral load and antibodies in vertical transmission of HIV in a non-randomized prospective study of 43 HIV-1 infected pregnant women who attended the San Juan City Hospital, Puerto Rico, and their 45 newborn infants. The women and infants received antiretroviral therapy. METHODS A(More)
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