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OBJECTIVES Duplexes of 21 base pair RNA, known as short-interfering RNA (siRNA), have been shown to inhibit gene expression by a sequence-specific RNA degradation mechanism termed RNA interference (RNAi). The objective of our study was to evaluate the effect of chemokine receptor gene suppression by RNAi on the entry and replication of HIV-1. METHODS A(More)
The 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT)-resistant pheno type of a heavily mutated human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) carrying a dipeptide (Ser-Ser) insertion between codons 69 and 70 as well as other mutations related to resistance to RT inhibitors has been studied. Recombinant virus carrying this variant RT (termed SS RT)(More)
Aphthoviruses use a conserved Arg-Gly-Asp triplet for attachment to host cells and this motif is believed to be essential for virus viability. Here we report that this triplet-which is also a widespread motif involved in cell-to-cell adhesion-can become dispensable upon short-term evolution of the virus harboring it. Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV),(More)
Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (nMAbs) elicited against foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) of serotype C were assayed with field isolates and variant FMDVs using several immunoassays. Of a total of 36 nMAbs tested, 23 recognized capsid protein VP1 and distinguished at least 13 virion conformation-independent epitopes involved in neutralization of FMDV(More)
BACKGROUND The S282T mutation is the main variant described associated with resistance to nucleos(t)ide analogues hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5B polymerase inhibitors. OBJECTIVE We aimed here to investigate whether this substitution pre-existed in treatment naive HCV/HIV-1 coinfected patients. STUDY DESIGN NS5B polymerase deep sequencing was performed at(More)
The genetic diversification of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) of serotype C over a 6-decade period was studied by comparing nucleotide sequences of the capsid protein-coding regions of viruses isolated in Europe, South America, and The Philippines. Phylogenetic trees were derived for VP1 and P1 (VP1, VP2, VP3, and VP4) RNAs by using the least-squares(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has a biased nucleotide composition different from human genes. This raises the question of how evolution has chosen the nucleotide sequence of HIV-1 that is observed today, or to what extent the actual encoding contributes to virus replication capacity, evolvability and pathogenesis. Here, we applied the(More)
Total meniscectomies are commonly thought to cause progressive degenerative arthrosis pathology in articular cartilage in a period of a few years because of alteration of the biomechanical environment including increased joint instability. This concern has lead to a preference for partial meniscectomies, although lateral partial meniscectomies sometimes(More)
Numerical and analytical studies on cylindrical geometries have shown the relevance of accounting for residual stresses in arterial modeling. However, multiple difficulties, both geometrical and numerical, arise when enforcing residual stresses in patient-specific arteries. This is the reason of the few simulations that have been developed on this kind of(More)
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 4 is spreading among southern European intravenous drug users, who are frequently co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Response to interferon (IFN) alpha-based therapies in HIV-1 positive patients co-infected with HCV genotype 4 is poor, similar to that obtained for HCV genotype 1 and much lower(More)