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The highly homologous Rnf2 (Ring1b) and Ring1 (Ring1a) proteins were identified as in vivo interactors of the Polycomb Group (PcG) protein Bmi1. Functional ablation of Rnf2 results in gastrulation arrest, in contrast to relatively mild phenotypes in most other PcG gene null mutants belonging to the same functional group, among which is Ring1. Developmental(More)
Phosphoinositides are localized in various intracellular compartments and can regulate a number of intracellular functions, such as cytoskeletal dynamics and membrane trafficking. Phospholipase Ds (PLDs) are regulated enzymes that hydrolyse phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) to generate the putative second messenger phosphatidic acid (PtdOH). In vitro, PLDs have(More)
BACKGROUND Phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate [PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3)] is a key second messenger found ubiquitously in higher eukaryotic cells. The activation of Class I phosphoinositide 3-kinases and the subsequent production of PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) is an important cell signaling event that has been causally linked to the activation of a variety of(More)
It is now clear that phosphoinositides, which play a major role in the regulation of a variety of cellular processes in the cytoplasm, are found within the nucleus. Their role in this subcellular compartment is still contentious; however, data has suggested that nuclear inositides generate substrates, such as PtdIns(4,5)P2, utilised by a number of nuclear(More)
Inositide signaling at the plasma membrane has been implicated in the regulation of numerous cellular processes including cytoskeletal dynamics, vesicle trafficking, and gene transcription. Studies have also shown that a distinct inositide pathway exists in nuclei, where it may regulate nuclear processes such as mRNA export, cell cycle progression, gene(More)
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