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The ability of grasses to regrow after defoliation by cutting or grazing is a vital factor in their survival and an important trait when they are used as forage crops. In temperate grass species accumulating fructans, defoliation induces the activity of a fructan exohydrolase (FEH) that degrades fructans to serve as a carbon source for regrowth. Here, a(More)
3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD), a rat renal and testicular carcinogen, has been reported to occur in various foods and food ingredients as free or esterified forms. Since reports about toxicity of 3-MCPD esters are limited, we conducted a 13-week rat subchronic toxicity study of 3-MCPD esters (palmitate diester: CDP, palmitate monoester: CMP, oleate(More)
In higher plants, the metabolism of carbon (C) and nitrogen nutrients (N) is mutually regulated and referred to as the C and N balance (C/N). Plants are thus able to optimize their growth depending on their cellular C/N status. Arabidopsis ATL31 and ATL6 encode a RING-type ubiquitin ligases which play a critical role in the C/N status response (Sato et al.(More)
It is common for neurotransmitters to possess multiple receptors that couple to the same intracellular signaling molecules. This study analyzes two highly homologous G-protein-coupled octopamine receptors using the model animal Caenorhabditis elegans. In C. elegans, the amine neurotransmitter octopamine induces activation of cAMP response element-binding(More)
Fructans are water-soluble fructose oligomers and polymers that are based on sucrose, and have been implicated in protecting plants against water stress. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is highly sensitive to chilling temperatures, and is not able to synthesize fructans. Two wheat fructan-synthesizing enzymes, sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase, encoded by wft2,(More)
Indole-3-carbinol (I3C), found in cruciferous vegetables, has been shown to suppress or promote carcinogenesis depending on various animal models. Regarding its preventive effects, I3C acts as an anti-estrogen and can induce apoptosis, but precise mechanisms remain to be determined. Since I3C induces cytochrome P450 enzymes in the liver, it affects(More)
Although perinatal exposure of female rats to estrogenic compounds produces irreversible changes in brain function, it is still unclear how the amount and timing of exposure to those substances affect learning function, or if exposure alters estrogen receptor α (ERα) expression in the hippocampus and cortex. In adult female rats, we investigated the effects(More)
Variation in the structures of plant fructans and their degree of polymerization (DP) can be explained as the result of diverse combinations of fructosyltransferases (FTs) with different properties. Although FT genes have been isolated in a range of plant species, sucrose:fructan 6-fructosyltransferase (6-SFT) cDNAs have only been functionally characterized(More)
We propose new uncertainty factors (UFs) and a new subdivision of default factors in chemical risk assessment using a probabilistic approach based on the latest applicable information. Rounded values of 150 for mice, 100 for hamsters and rats, and 40 for rabbits, monkeys and dogs for inter- and intra-species differences (UF(AH)) were derived from the(More)
The INHAND (International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic Criteria for Lesions in Rats and Mice) Project (www.toxpath.org/inhand.asp) is a joint initiative of the Societies of Toxicological Pathology from Europe (ESTP), Great Britain (BSTP), Japan (JSTP) and North America (STP) to develop an internationally accepted nomenclature for(More)