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The ability of grasses to regrow after defoliation by cutting or grazing is a vital factor in their survival and an important trait when they are used as forage crops. In temperate grass species accumulating fructans, defoliation induces the activity of a fructan exohydrolase (FEH) that degrades fructans to serve as a carbon source for regrowth. Here, a(More)
Graminan-type fructans are temporarily stored in wheat (Triticum aestivum) stems. Two phases can be distinguished: a phase of fructan biosynthesis (green stems) followed by a breakdown phase (stems turning yellow). So far, no plant fructan exohydrolase enzymes have been cloned from a monocotyledonous species. Here, we report on the cloning, purification,(More)
Fructans are water-soluble fructose oligomers and polymers that are based on sucrose, and have been implicated in protecting plants against water stress. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is highly sensitive to chilling temperatures, and is not able to synthesize fructans. Two wheat fructan-synthesizing enzymes, sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase, encoded by wft2,(More)
Patched1 (Ptch1) encodes a receptor for Sonic hedgehog (Shh) and is major gene related to human medulloblastoma (MB) in the Shh subgroup. MB is thought to arise from residual granule cell precursors (GCPs) located in the external granular layer (EGL) of the developing cerebellum. As the detailed preneoplastic changes of MB remain obscure, we(More)
* Fructan:fructan 6G-fructosyltransferase (6G-FFT) catalyses a transfructosylation from fructooligosaccharides to C6 of the glucose residue of sucrose or fructooligosacchrides. In asparagus (Asparagus officinalis), 6G-FFT is important for the synthesis of inulin neoseries fructan. Here, we report the isolation and functional analysis of the gene encoding(More)
Like barley and other cereals, wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) accumulates branched graminan-type fructans containing both beta-(2,1) and beta-(2,6) fructosyl linkages, mainly with a quite low degree of polymerization (DP). 1&6-kestotetraose (bifurcose) is the major fructan oligosaccharide accumulating in crown tissues and leaves of cereals exposed to(More)
* Fructan is the major nonstructural carbohydrate reserve in temperate grasses. To understand regulatory mechanisms in fructan synthesis and adaptation to cold environments, the isolation, functional characterization and genetic mapping of fructosyltransferase (FT) genes in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) are described. * Six cDNAs (prft1-prft6)(More)
In higher plants, the metabolism of carbon (C) and nitrogen nutrients (N) is mutually regulated and referred to as the C and N balance (C/N). Plants are thus able to optimize their growth depending on their cellular C/N status. Arabidopsis ATL31 and ATL6 encode a RING-type ubiquitin ligases which play a critical role in the C/N status response (Sato et al.(More)
Chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) were examined in male and female F344 rats. GlcNAc was given in the diet at levels of 0%, 1.25%, 2.5% or 5% to groups of 10 rats of each sex for 52 weeks in the chronic toxicity study and 0%, 2.5% or 5% to groups of 50 rats of each sex for 104 weeks in the carcinogenicity study. GlcNAc(More)
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) has similar characteristics to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in reproduction toxicity featured by neonatal death. We found that PFOS exposure to mice during pregnancy led to intracranial blood vessel dilatation of fetuses accompanied by severe lung collapse which caused neonatal mortality. Thus, we adopted the corresponding(More)