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In a recent study, we reported that interleukin (IL)-4 had a protective role against acetaminophen (APAP)-induced liver injury (AILI), although the mechanism of protection was unclear. Here, we carried out more detailed investigations and have shown that one way IL-4 may control the severity of AILI is by regulating glutathione (GSH) synthesis. In the(More)
Thioacetamide (TA), a potent centrilobular hepatotoxicant, undergoes a two-step bioactivation mediated by microsomal CYP2E1 to TA sulfoxide (TASO), and further to TA-S,S-dioxide (TASO2), a reactive metabolite that initiates cellular necrosis. Our earlier studies showed that bioactivation-mediated liver injury of TA is not dose-proportional. The objective of(More)
UNLABELLED Liver eosinophilia has been associated with incidences of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) for more than 50 years, although its role in this disease has remained largely unknown. In this regard, it was recently shown that eosinophils played a pathogenic role in a mouse model of halothane-induced liver injury (HILI). However, the signaling events(More)
Thioacetamide (TA) is bioactivated by CYP2E1 to TA sulfoxide (TASO), and to the highly reactive sulfdioxide (TASO(2)), which initiates hepatic necrosis by covalent binding. Previously, we have established that TA exhibits saturation toxicokinetics over a 12-fold dose range, which explains the lack of dose-response for bioactivation-based liver injury. In(More)
Thioacetamide (TA) undergoes saturation toxicokinetics in ad libitum (AL) fed rats. Diet restriction (DR) protects rats from lethal dose of TA despite increased bioactivation-mediated liver injury via CYP2E1 induction. While a low dose (50 mg TA/kg) produces 6-fold higher initial injury, a 12-fold higher dose produces delayed and mere 2.5-fold higher(More)
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and potentially life-threatening complication after ischemia/reperfusion and exposure to nephrotoxic agents. In this study, we examined the efficacy and mechanism(s) of suramin in promoting recovery from glycerol-induced AKI, a model of rhabdomyolysis-induced AKI. After intramuscular glycerol injection (10 ml of 50%(More)
Skeletal muscle atrophy remains a clinical problem in numerous pathologic conditions. β2-Adrenergic receptor agonists, such as formoterol, can induce mitochondrial biogenesis (MB) to prevent such atrophy. Additionally, atomoxetine, an FDA-approved norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, was positive in a cellular assay for MB. We used a mouse model of(More)
Although the importance of mitochondrial dysfunction in acute kidney injury (AKI) has been documented, noninvasive early biomarkers of mitochondrial damage are needed. We examined urinary ATP synthase subunit β (ATPSβ) as a biomarker of renal mitochondrial dysfunction during AKI. Mice underwent sham surgery or varying degrees (5, 10, or 15 min ischemia) of(More)
Progression of hyperglycemia-induced renal injury is a contributing factor for diabetic nephropathy (DN)-induced end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and development of novel therapeutic strategies that act early to prevent progression of DN and ESRD are important. We examined the efficacy and mechanism(s) of suramin on hyperglycemia-induced renal injury before(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether delayed administration of a single dose of suramin, a drug that has been used extensively in humans to treat trypanosomiasis, attenuates renal injury in a leptin receptor deficient C57BLKS/J db/db type 2 diabetic nephropathy (T2DN) mouse model. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Groups of female non-diabetic (control) db/m and(More)