Learn More
Research in autophagy continues to accelerate,(1) and as a result many new scientists are entering the field. Accordingly, it is important to establish a standard set of criteria for monitoring macroautophagy in different organisms. Recent reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose.(2,3) There are many useful and(More)
Despite its importance in the cerebellum, the functions of the orphan glutamate receptor delta2 are unknown. We examined a mutant delta2 receptor channel in lurcher mice that was constitutively active in the absence of ligand. Because this mutation was within a highly conserved motif (YTANLAAF), we tested its effect on several glutamate receptors. Mutant(More)
In vitro studies have suggested that the NMDA receptor consists of an essential subunit, NR1, and various modulatory NR2 subunits. To test this hypothesis directly in vivo, we generated mice carrying a disrupted NR1 allele. NMDA-inducible increases in intracellular calcium and membrane currents were abolished in neurons from homozygous null mutants(More)
The NMDA receptor 3B (NR3B) subunit is the most recently identified member of the NMDA receptor family. In heterologous cells, it has been shown to reduce the Ca2+ permeability of glutamatergic receptor complexes formed together with NR1 and NR2 subunits and to form the unique excitatory glycine receptor complex with the NR1 subunit. However, it is unclear(More)
Cbln1 (a.k.a. precerebellin) is a unique bidirectional synaptic organizer that plays an essential role in the formation and maintenance of excitatory synapses between granule cells and Purkinje cells in the mouse cerebellum. Cbln1 secreted from cerebellar granule cells directly induces presynaptic differentiation and indirectly serves as a postsynaptic(More)
The cerebellar Purkinje cell has been the focus of numerous studies involving the analysis of development and information processing in the nervous system. Purkinje cells represent less than 0.1% of the total cell content of the cerebellum. To facilitate studies of molecules that are expressed in such a small proportion of neurons, we have established(More)
Interleukin (IL)-16 is a proinflammatory cytokine that has attracted widespread attention because of its ability to block HIV replication. We describe the identification and characterization of a large neuronal IL-16 precursor, NIL-16. The N-terminal half of NIL-16 constitutes a novel PDZ domain protein sequence, whereas the C terminus is identical with(More)
Cbln1, secreted from cerebellar granule cells, and the orphan glutamate receptor delta2 (GluD2), expressed by Purkinje cells, are essential for synapse integrity between these neurons in adult mice. Nevertheless, no endogenous binding partners for these molecules have been identified. We found that Cbln1 binds directly to the N-terminal domain of GluD2.(More)
We report the cloning and characterization of a novel NMDA receptor subunit cDNA, which encodes a predicted polypeptide of 1003 amino acids. Phylogenic analysis indicates that this new subunit is most closely related to NR3A. Therefore, we term it NR3B. Important functional domains of glutamate receptors, such as the ligand-binding domain, the channel pore,(More)
AP-4 is a member of the adaptor protein complexes, which control vesicular trafficking of membrane proteins. Although AP-4 has been suggested to contribute to basolateral sorting in epithelial cells, its function in neurons is unknown. Here, we show that disruption of the gene encoding the beta subunit of AP-4 resulted in increased accumulation of axonal(More)