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-Amyloid (A ) acquires toxicity by self-aggregation. To identify and characterize the toxic form(s) of A aggregates, we examined in vitro aggregation conditions by using large quantities of homogenous, chemically synthesized A 1–40 peptide. We found that slow rotation of A 1–40 solution reproducibly gave self-aggregated A 1–40 containing a stable and highly(More)
beta-Amyloid (Abeta) acquires toxicity by self-aggregation. To identify and characterize the toxic form(s) of Abeta aggregates, we examined in vitro aggregation conditions by using large quantities of homogenous, chemically synthesized Abeta1-40 peptide. We found that slow rotation of Abeta1-40 solution reproducibly gave self-aggregated Abeta1-40 containing(More)
It's alarming: Bacterial alarmone guanosine 5'-diphosphate 3'-diphosphate (ppGpp), which is a key regulatory molecule that controls the stringent response, also exists in chloroplasts of plant cells. Cross-linking experiments with 6-thioguanosine 5'-diphosphate 3'-diphosphate (6-thioppGpp) and chloroplast RNA polymerase indicate that ppGpp binds the beta'(More)
The hormonal action of jasmonate in plants is controlled by the precise balance between its biosynthesis and catabolism. It has been shown that jasmonyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile) is the bioactive form involved in the jasmonate-mediated signaling pathway. However, the catabolism of JA-Ile is poorly understood. Although a metabolite, 12-hydroxyJA-Ile, has been(More)
Nonfibrillar assemblies of amyloid β-protein (Aβ) are considered to play primary roles in Alzheimer disease (AD). Elucidating the assembly pathways of these specific aggregates is essential for understanding disease pathogenesis and developing knowledge-based therapies. However, these assemblies cannot be monitored in vivo, and there has been no reliable in(More)
Amyloid beta-protein (Abeta) assemblies are thought to play primary roles in Alzheimer disease (AD). They are considered to acquire surface tertiary structures, not present in physiologic monomers, that are responsible for exerting toxicity, probably through abnormal interactions with their target(s). Therefore, Abeta assemblies having distinct surface(More)
BACKGROUND The Mcm proteins are a family of six homologous proteins (Mcm2-7) that play an important role in DNA replication. They form Mcm4/6/7 and Mcm2/4/6/7 complexes, but their structures are not known. RESULTS We found that the human Mcm2/4/6/7 tetramer forms a toroidal structure, with a central cavity about 3-4 nm in diameter. Observations were made(More)
Fungal genome sequencing has revealed many genes coding for biosynthetic enzymes, including polyketide synthases and nonribosomal peptide synthetases. However, characterizing these enzymes and identifying the compounds they synthesize remains a challenge, whether the genes are expressed in their original hosts or in more tractable heterologous hosts, such(More)
We report the identification and characterization of the caz biosynthetic cluster from Chaetomium globosum and the characterization of a highly reducing polyketide synthase (PKS) that acts in both a sequential and convergent manner with a nonreducing PKS to form the chaetomugilin and chaetoviridin azaphilones. Genetic inactivation studies verified the(More)
Two genes encoding RelA/SpoT homologs, PpRSH2a and PpRSH2b, which are involved in the synthesis of bacterial alarmone guanosine 5'-diphosphate 3'-diphosphate (ppGpp) for the stringent response, were isolated from the moss, Physcomitrella patens. A complementary analysis of PpRSH2a and PpRSH2b in Escherichia coli showed that these genes had ppGpp(More)