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Antisymmetry in the direction of the mouth opening, to either the right ("lefty") or left ("righty"), was documented in the scale-eating cichlid Perissodus microlepis. This study revealed the presence of lefty and righty mouth morphs in the herbivorous cichlid Neolamprologus moorii, although the degree of deviation was not large. Both species are biparental(More)
Morphological dimorphism in the mouth-opening direction ('lefty' versus 'righty') has been documented in several fish species. It has been suggested that this deflection is heritable in a Mendelian one-locus, two-allele fashion. Several population models have demonstrated that lateral dimorphism is maintained by negative frequency-dependent selection,(More)
1. Communities of different species are often structured according to niche differentiation associated with competitive interactions. We show that similar principles may apply on an ecological time-scale when individuals of a species having a wide size variation compete for resources, using the Lake Tanganyika cichlid Lobochilotes labiatus (5-30 cm). This(More)
The dwarf morph of the Lake Tanganyika cichlid Telmatochromis temporalis uses empty snail shells as shelters and breeding sites in shell beds, in which many empty shells exist. Here, we assessed selection forces regulating body size in this fish. Field observations showed that large males tended to have a greater number of females in their territories,(More)
External asymmetry found in diverse animals bears critical functions to fulfil ecological requirements. Some snail-eating arthropods exhibit directional asymmetry in their feeding apparatus for foraging efficiency because dextral (clockwise) species are overwhelmingly predominant in snails. Here, we show convergence of directional asymmetry in the dentition(More)
BACKGROUND Cichlid fishes in Lake Tanganyika exhibit remarkable diversity in their feeding habits. Among them, seven species in the genus Perissodus are known for their unique feeding habit of scale eating with specialized feeding morphology and behaviour. Although the origin of the scale-eating habit has long been questioned, its evolutionary process is(More)
Behavioural laterality (e.g., during social interactions) is often observed at the individual level in lower vertebrates such as fish, whereas population-level laterality is observed in many higher vertebrates. Population-level laterality can be explained mainly by internal factors (e.g., cerebral lateralization), whereas little is known about the(More)
Two morphological types ("righty" and "lefty") have been discovered in several fish species and are referred to as a typical example of antisymmetry. It has been suggested, first, that this dimorphism (called laterality) is inheritable; second, that the frequencies of laterality in each species fluctuate around 0.5; and third, that predators mainly exploit(More)
Morphological asymmetry and behavioral laterality in vertebrate species have been intensively studied in recent years, while comparable invertebrate studies are rare. Here we demonstrate asymmetry in the curvature of the abdomen and laterality in evasive responses for two atyid shrimps, Limnocaridina latipes and Neocaridina denticulata. The frequency(More)