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Rod Borup,* Jeremy Meyers,‡ Bryan Pivovar,† Yu Seung Kim,† Rangachary Mukundan,† Nancy Garland,§ Deborah Myers, Mahlon Wilson,† Fernando Garzon,† David Wood,† Piotr Zelenay,† Karren More,⊥ Ken Stroh,† Tom Zawodzinski, James Boncella,† James E. McGrath, Minoru Inaba,# Kenji Miyatake,∇ Michio Hori, Kenichiro Ota, Zempachi Ogumi,£ Seizo Miyata,+ Atsushi(More)
Cichlid fishes in Lake Tanganyika exhibit remarkable diversity in their feeding habits. Among them, seven species in the genus Perissodus are known for their unique feeding habit of scale eating with specialized feeding morphology and behaviour. Although the origin of the scale-eating habit has long been questioned, its evolutionary process is still(More)
Antisymmetry in the direction of the mouth opening, to either the right ("lefty") or left ("righty"), was documented in the scale-eating cichlid Perissodus microlepis. This study revealed the presence of lefty and righty mouth morphs in the herbivorous cichlid Neolamprologus moorii, although the degree of deviation was not large. Both species are biparental(More)
Morphological dimorphism in the mouth-opening direction ('lefty' versus 'righty') has been documented in several fish species. It has been suggested that this deflection is heritable in a Mendelian one-locus, two-allele fashion. Several population models have demonstrated that lateral dimorphism is maintained by negative frequency-dependent selection,(More)
Species, size composition, and diurnal variation in abundance of shrimp (Atyidae) were examined and compared with food habits of 14 species of shrimp-eating cichlids in Lake Tanganyika. In the daytime when the cichlids foraged actively, only one species of shrimp, Limnocaridina latipes, was present on rock surfaces. Eleven of the 14 species of shrimp-eaters(More)
Some properties of community structure are explored using co-evolutionary theory. We consider mathematical models of food webs in which all species in a community adopt foraging behaviours and antipredator behaviours that maximize individual fitness. If the antipredator behaviour of a prey is effective against all its enemies, the number of prey—predator(More)
1. Communities of different species are often structured according to niche differentiation associated with competitive interactions. We show that similar principles may apply on an ecological time-scale when individuals of a species having a wide size variation compete for resources, using the Lake Tanganyika cichlid Lobochilotes labiatus (5-30 cm). This(More)
Behavioral lateralization has been documented in many vertebrates. The scale-eating cichlid fish Perissodus microlepis is well known for exhibiting lateral dimorphism in its mouth morphology and lateralized behavior in robbing scales from prey fish. A previous field study indicated that this mouth asymmetry closely correlates with the side on which prey is(More)
Theories suggest that, in cooperatively breeding species, female control over paternity and reproductive output may affect male reproductive skew and group stability. Female paternity control may come about through cryptic female choice or female reproductive behaviour, but experimental studies are scarce. Here, we show a new form of female paternity(More)
Antipredator strategies employed by prey may be specific (effective against only one type of predator) or non-specific (effective against all predators). To examine the effects of the specificity of antipredator behaviour on biodiversity and community complexity, we analyse mathematical models including both evolutionary and population dynamics of a system(More)