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The final step of 2-methoxy-3-alkylpyrazine (MP) biosynthesis has been presumed to involve O-methylation of 2-hydroxy-3-alkylpyarzine (HP), although this reaction has never been demonstrated in organisms. We detected 2-hydroxy-3-isobutylpyrazine (IBHP) and 2-hydroxy-3-isopropylpyrazine (IPHP) in unripe grapes, and S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent(More)
To reduce the immunogenicity of β-lactoglobulin (BLG), we prepared wild-type bovine BLG variant A (wt) and three site-specifically glycosylated BLGs (D28N, D137N/A139S, and P153A), and expressed them in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris by fusion of the cDNA to the sequence coding for the α-factor signal peptide from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Sodium(More)
We compared the status of carbonaceous aerosols in Tokyo before and after the implementation of a diesel vehicle regulation intended to reduce the quantity of particulate carbon from diesel engines in one of the largest scale ever attempts at vehicle exhaust control. Radiocarbon (14C) in elemental carbon (EC) and total carbon (TC) were analyzed to identify(More)
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