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Programmed cell death or apoptosis occurs in many tissues during normal development and in the normal homeostasis of adult tissues. Apoptosis also plays a significant role in abnormal development and disease. Increased interest in apoptosis and cell death in general has resulted in the development of new techniques and the revival of old ones. Each assay(More)
Hemodynamics is thought to play a major role in heart development, yet tools to quantitatively assess hemodynamics in the embryo are sorely lacking. The especially challenging analysis of hemodynamics in the early embryo requires new technology. Small changes in blood flow could indicate when anomalies are initiated even before structural changes can be(More)
BACKGROUND Malignant glioma is one of the most intractable diseases in the human body. Rho-kinase (ROCK) is overexpressed and has been proposed as the main cause for the refractoriness of the disease. Since efficacious treatment is required, this study investigated the effect of inhibition of ROCK isoforms. MATERIALS AND METHODS The short hairpin RNA(More)
We proposed a model in which myocardial hypoxia triggers the apoptosis-dependent remodeling of the avian outflow tract (OFT) in the transition of the embryo to a dual circulation. In this study, we examined hypoxia-dependent signaling in cardiomyocyte apoptosis and outflow tract remodeling. The hypoxia-inducible transcription factor HIF-1alpha was(More)
Quantification of microvascular remodeling as a meaningful discovery tool requires mapping and measurement of site-specific changes within vascular trees and networks. Vessel density and other critical vascular parameters are often modulated by molecular regulators as determined by local vascular architecture. For example, enlargement of vessel diameter by(More)
Disrupted ERK1/2 (MAPK3/MAPK1) MAPK signaling has been associated with several developmental syndromes in humans; however, mutations in ERK1 or ERK2 have not been described. We demonstrate haplo-insufficient ERK2 expression in patients with a novel approximately 1 Mb micro-deletion in distal 22q11.2, a region that includes ERK2. These patients exhibit(More)
Cited2 is a cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CBP)/p300 interacting transcriptional modulator and a proposed negative regulator for hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha through its competitive binding with HIF-1alpha to CBP/p300. Disruption of the gene encoding Cited2 is embryonic lethal because of defects in the development of heart and neural(More)
Mutation of neoplastic tumor suppressor genes, scribble, discs large, and lethal giant larvae (lgl), causes disruption of cell polarity and overproliferation of Drosophila epithelial cells and neuroblasts. Reduced expression of human homologue of lgl, Hugl-1, has been reported to be involved in development and progression of human colon cancer and malignant(More)
AIMS The transcription factor hexamethylene-bis-acetamide-inducible protein 1 (HEXIM1) regulates myocardial vascularization and growth during cardiogenesis. Our aim was to determine whether HEXIM1 also has a beneficial role in modulating vascularization, myocardial growth, and function within the adult heart. METHODS AND RESULTS To achieve our objective,(More)
We demonstrate the first in vivo gated 4D images of avian embryonic hearts by use of optical coherence tomography (OCT). We present a gated 4D dataset of an in vivo beating quail heart consisting of approximately 864,000 A-scans accumulated over multiple heartbeats. Generation of a gating trigger from a laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) signal, collected from(More)