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OBJECTIVE Genetic polymorphisms were identified in the 5'-flanking region of the human CYP2C9 gene, and their effects on the phenotype were evaluated on the basis of the luciferase reporter gene assay and the in vivo pharmacokinetics of phenytoin. METHODS Genetic polymorphisms were screened by polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformational(More)
The serine/threonine protein kinase B/Akt plays a central role in the coordination of multiple signal transduction processes involved in transcriptional regulation, cell survival, and apoptosis. Activation of Akt kinase is a prognostic factor in several types of cancers; however, its role in gastrointestinal cancers is not fully understood. Caspase-9 is an(More)
Thymidine kinase-1 (TK-1) and thymidylate synthase (TS) are key enzymes for salvage and de novo pyrimidine synthesis, respectively. Numerous studies have suggested that increased TS levels are associated closely with resistance to fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy. TAS-102 is a novel drug containing trifluorothymidine, which is phosphorylated by TK-1 to(More)
Lack of apoptosis is a key factor in carcino-genesis and tumor progression. Survivin is a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family. Second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases/direct inhibitor of apoptosis-binding protein with low pI (Smac/DIABLO) is an antagonist of IAPs. Recently, Smac/DIABLO was identified as a potent therapeutic(More)
Caspase-8 and caspase-9 play crucial roles in the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways, respectively. The nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) is involved in caspase-independent apoptosis. Microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) plays a pivotal role in autophagy. In the present study, we analyzed the expression of(More)
Survivin is a protein that is highly expressed in many embryonic tissues, as well as most human tumors. Prior studies have reported both positive and negative correlations between survivin expression and cancer prognosis, but these associations remain controversial. In the present study, we assessed the expression of nuclear and cytoplasmic survivin in(More)
Some studies have shown the usability of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in gastric cancer (GC). Nevertheless there are a few predictive markers of the effectiveness of NAC in GC. The aim of this study is to assess the predictive impact of organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) expression on response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in gastric cancer. We(More)
Survivin, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein family, is a potential prognostic marker and molecular target for anticancer therapies. Chromosomal regional maintenance protein-1 (CRM-1) mediates the nuclear export of proteins such as survivin. The aims of the present study were to compare the expression and subcellular localization of CRM-1 in(More)
Zinc (Zn) is a trace element with anti-diabetes mellitus (anti-DM) effects. Zn complexes exhibit stronger insulin-like activity than Zn ions. Bis(hinokitiolato)zinc complex ([Zn(hkt)2]) was recently reported to be a potent anti-DM candidate. We examined the effects of [Zn(hkt)2] on insulin resistance and pancreatic islet cells through in vivo long-term(More)