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Interleukin-17 (IL-17) is a proinflammatory cytokine produced by T cells. The involvement of IL-17 in human diseases has been suspected because of its detection in sera from asthmatic patients and synovial fluids from arthritic patients. In this study, we generated IL-17-deficient mice and investigated the role of IL-17 in various disease models. We found(More)
The oxygen affinity of hemoglobin is critical for gas exchange in the lung and O(2) delivery in peripheral tissues. In the present study, we generated model mice that carry low affinity hemoglobin with the Titusville mutation in the alpha-globin gene or Presbyterian mutation in the beta-globin gene. The mutant mice showed increased O(2) consumption and(More)
IL-1 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine consisted of two molecular species, IL-1alpha and IL-1beta, and the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) is a natural inhibitor of both molecules. Although it is suggested that IL-1 potentiates immune responses mediated by T(h)2 cells, the role of IL-1 in asthma still remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that the(More)
BACKGROUND Clinical studies suggest a role for angiogenesis in the development and persistence of chronic asthma, but whether angiogenic mediators contribute to acute asthma has not been fully studied. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to investigate a role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a major angiogenic and proinflammatory mediator, in(More)
The natural anticoagulant-activated protein C may inhibit inflammation and fibrosis in the lung. Platelet-derived growth factor is involved in the pathogenesis of lung fibrosis. This study assessed the effect of activated protein C on platelet-derived growth factor expression in human cell lines and in an in vivo model of lung fibrosis. Activated protein C(More)
The role of central histamine in the hypoxic ventilatory response was examined in conscious wild-type (WT) and histamine type1 receptor-knockout (H1RKO) mice. Hypoxic gas (7% O(2) and 3% CO(2) in N(2)) exposure initially increased and then decreased ventilation, referred to as hypoxic ventilatory decline (HVD). The initial increase in ventilation did not(More)
Asthma is one of the most common diseases and is characterized by airway obstruction, airway inflammation, and increased airway responsiveness. Glucocorticoids are very effective in treatment, but their long-term use is associated with several side effects, so that new anti-inflammatory drugs are in development. Activated protein C (APC) is a serine(More)
BACKGROUND Thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC; CCL17) is a lymphocyte-directed CC chemokine that specifically attracts T-helper (Th) 2 cells positive for the CC chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4(+)). Corticosteroids reduce airway inflammation, as reflected by reduced numbers of eosinophils and T cells and reduced expression of cytokines. We(More)
Ventilation oscillates throughout a day in parallel with oscillations in metabolic rate. Histamine affects ventilation and the balance of the energy metabolism via H1 receptors in the brain. We tested the hypothesis that the ventilatory response to hypoxia varies between light and dark periods and that histamine H1 receptors are required for the circadian(More)
Central histaminergic neurons are distributed in areas of the medulla and pons concerned with respiratory rhythm generation, but their effects on breathing pattern are unknown. We examined breathing pattern during hypercapnic responses in wild type (WT) and H1 receptor knockout (H1RKO) mice at 9-10 weeks of age before and after vagotomy. Minute ventilation(More)