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Genetic studies in worms, flies, and humans have implicated the presenilins in the regulation of the Notch signaling pathway and in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's Disease. There are two highly homologous presenilin genes in mammals, presenilin 1 (PS1) and presenilin 2 (PS2). In mice, inactivation of PS1 leads to developmental defects that culminate in a(More)
The rice species Oryza sativa is considered to be a model plant because of its small genome size, extensive genetic map, relative ease of transformation and synteny with other cereal crops. Here we report the essentially complete sequence of chromosome 1, the longest chromosome in the rice genome. We summarize characteristics of the chromosome structure and(More)
In vivo voltammetry was used to monitor the concentration of dopamine released into striatal extracellular fluid during electrical stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle of anesthetized rats. During stimulation the dopamine concentration increases rapidly to micromolar levels. After cessation of the stimulus, uptake mechanisms rapidly clear the released(More)
Released dopamine was monitored voltammetrically in the rat striatum in response to electrical stimulation of the nigrostriatal bundle. Stimulation parameters encompassed those typically used in behavioral studies. Dopamine released during intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS)-like stimulation reached a maximum within the first minute of stimulation, then(More)
In vivo voltammetry was used to monitor dopamine released into the extracellular fluid of the rat striatum by 10-s periods of electrical stimulation of nigrostriatal axons. By varying the interval between stimulations the dynamics of the recovery of the stimulation response has been investigated. The recovery is shown to be differentially affected by(More)
Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) is an endogenous peptide agonist for the opioid receptor homolog, N/OFQ receptor, and serves for the central control of autonomic functions. Morphological details including the cell types that may account for such N/OFQ functions, however, remain unclear. By using X-gal histochemistry for the detection of receptor-expressing(More)
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