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Hepatic insulin resistance affects both carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It has been proposed that insulin controls these 2 metabolic branches through distinct signaling pathways. FoxO transcription factors are considered effectors of the pathway regulating hepatic glucose production. Here we show that adenoviral delivery of constitutively nuclear(More)
Reduced food intake brings about an adaptive decrease in energy expenditure that contributes to the recidivism of obesity following weight loss. Insulin and leptin inhibit food intake through actions in the central nervous system that are partly mediated by FoxO1. We show that FoxO1 ablation in pro–opiomelanocortin (Pomc) neurons (Pomc–Foxo1 −/−) reduces(More)
The physiological relevance of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-K) signaling in the liver to fuel homeostasis was investigated. Systemic infusion of an adenovirus encoding a dominant negative mutant of PI 3-K ((Delta)p85) resulted in liver-specific expression of this protein and in inhibition of the insulin-induced activation of PI 3-K in the liver within 3(More)
In the liver, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) plays an important role in the suppression of gluconeogenic enzyme expression. While obesity-associated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been shown to increase hepatic gluconeogenic enzyme expression, the role of ER stress in STAT3-dependent regulation of such expression is(More)
The mechanism by which insulin induces the expression of the sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) and glucokinase genes was investigated in cultured rat hepatocytes. Overexpression of an NH(2)-terminal fragment of IRS-1 that contains the pleckstrin homology and phosphotyrosine binding domains (insulin receptor substrate-1 NH(2)-terminal(More)
OBJECTIVE Endoplasmic reticulum stress increases macrophage apoptosis, contributing to the complications of atherosclerosis. Insulin-resistant macrophages are more susceptible to endoplasmic reticulum stress-associated apoptosis probably contributing to macrophage death and necrotic core formation in atherosclerotic plaques in type 2 diabetes. However, the(More)
OBJECTIVE Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death among people with diabetes. Generation of oxidized LDLs and reduced nitric oxide (NO) availability because of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) dysfunction are critical events in atherosclerotic plaque formation. Biochemical mechanism leading from hyperglycemia to oxLDL formation(More)