Michihiko Usui

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Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) controls osteoblast proliferation and differentiation through Smad proteins. Here we show that Tob, a member of the emerging family of antiproliferative proteins, is a negative regulator of BMP/Smad signaling in osteoblasts. Mice carrying a targeted deletion of the tob gene have a greater bone mass resulting from increased(More)
Although metabolically active compounds sometime attenuate cognitive deficits of dementia patients, this mechanism has not been discussed or investigated. We hypothesized that these compounds improve cognitive disorders not by directly acting on this cognitive function, but by increasing the arousal level. Based on this hypothesis, we investigated the(More)
Metrifonate is an organophosphorous compound that has been used in the treatment of schistosomiasis. In this study, we investigated the effects of metrifonate on the impairment of learning and on central cholinergic dysfunction in scopolamine-treated and basal forebrain-lesioned rats. Oral administration of metrifonate (5.0-15.0 mg/kg) ameliorated the(More)
OBJECTIVE Donepezil, an inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) targeting the brain, is a common medication for Alzheimer's disease. Interestingly, a recent clinical study found that administration of this agent is associated with lower risk of hip fracture independently of falling, suggesting its direct effect on bone tissues as well. AChE has been(More)
Many studies on the cholinergic pathway have indicated that cholinergic receptors, which are widely expressed in various cells, play an important role in all body organs. In this review, we present the concept that cholinergic responses are regulated through a neuronal or non-neuronal mechanism. The neuronal mechanism is a system in which acetylcholine(More)
Although nootropics and metabolically active compounds sometimes attenuate intellectual deficits of dementia patients, this mechanism has not been discussed or investigated. The authors hypothesized that these compounds act to enhance attention and/or concentration by increasing the arousal level, and then improve intellectual functions. Based on this(More)
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