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CD44 is a cell surface receptor for hyaluronate, a component of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Although CD44 has been implicated in tumor invasion and metastasis, the molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Here we find that CD44 expressed in cancer cells is cleaved at the membrane-proximal region of the ectodomain and the membrane-bound cleavage(More)
CD44 is a cell surface receptor for several extracellular matrix components and is implicated in tumor cell invasion and metastasis. Our previous studies have shown that CD44 expressed in cancer cells is proteolytically cleaved at the extracellular domain through membrane-associated metalloproteases and that CD44 cleavage plays a critical role in(More)
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive lung disease without proven effective therapy. A multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised phase III clinical trial was conducted in Japanese patients with well-defined IPF to determine the efficacy and safety of pirfenidone, a novel antifibrotic oral agent, over 52 weeks. Of 275 patients(More)
The involvement of nitric oxide (NO) and its reactive intermediates such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and peroxynitrite (ONOO-) in the activation of matrix metallo-proteinase was investigated. The human neutrophil procollagenase (matrix metalloproteinase-8) (M(r), 85 kDa) was purified to homogeneity from human neutrophils by using column chromatography. After(More)
Ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury is a major cause of organ dysfunction following lung transplantation. We have recently described increased apoptosis in transplanted human lungs after graft reperfusion. However, a direct correlation between ischemic time, cell death, and posttransplant lung function has not yet been demonstrated. We hypothesized that an(More)
The Japanese Society of Chemotherapy (JSC) conducted the first nationwide surveillance of bacterial respiratory pathogens during the period from January to August 2006. With the cooperation of 32 medical institutions throughout Japan, a total of 924 strains belonging to seven clinically relevant bacterial species were collected from adult patients with(More)
Caspase-3 is one of the cystein proteases that play essential roles in programmed cell death. As such, brain development is profoundly affected by caspase-3-deficiency, resulting in hyperplasia and abnormal cell organization (Kuida et al., Nature 1996;384:368-372). In the present study, we used caspase-3 (-/-) mice to show that caspase-3 deficiency results(More)
It is generally recognized that epithelial cytokeratins (CKs) are expressed in tissue-specific patterns and reflect differentiation, functional specialization, and pathological alterations of the cells. Differential epithelial cell types can thus be distinguished from each other by their selective expression of particular sets of CKs. To determine the(More)
The role of nitric oxide (NO) in the pathogenesis of influenza virus-induced pneumonia in mice was investigated. Experimental influenza virus pneumonia was produced with influenza virus A/Kumamoto/Y5/67(H2N2). Both the enzyme activity of NO synthase (NOS) and mRNA expression of the inducible NOS were greatly increased in the mouse lungs; increases were(More)
The role of superoxide anion (O2-) and nitric oxide (NO) in the host defense mechanism against Salmonella typhimurium (LT-2) was examined by focusing on xanthine oxidase (XO) as an O2(-)-generating system and on inducible NO synthase (iNOS). When ICR mice were infected with a 0.1 50% lethal dose (2 x 10(5) CFU) of S. typhimurium, bacterial growth in the(More)