Michelle Spaulding

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Cetaceans are remarkable among mammals for their numerous adaptations to an entirely aquatic existence, yet many aspects of their phylogeny remain unresolved. Here we merged 37 new sequences from the nuclear genes RAG1 and PRM1 with most published molecular data for the group (45 nuclear loci, transposons, mitochondrial genomes), and generated a supermatrix(More)
BACKGROUND Integration of diverse data (molecules, fossils) provides the most robust test of the phylogeny of cetaceans. Positioning key fossils is critical for reconstructing the character change from life on land to life in the water. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We reexamine relationships of critical extinct taxa that impact our understanding of the(More)
The furcula is a structure formed by the midline fusion of the clavicles. This is the element which is unique to theropods and is important for understanding the link between birds and other theropods. New specimens from basal theropods suggest that the furcula appeared very early in theropod history. We review furcula development, function, and morphology,(More)
Authoritative anatomical references depict domestic dogs and cats as having a malleus with a short rostral (anterior) process that is connected via a ligament to the ectotympanic of the auditory bulla. Similar mallei have been reported for representatives of each of the 15 extant families of Carnivora, the placental order containing dogs and cats. This(More)
The production of antibodies to nucleic acids, and in particular to DNA, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, little is known about the conditions under which DNA is immunogenic, particularly in well-characterized in vitro systems. Therefore, we examined whether a source of(More)
Since its introduction to the scientific community, the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) has been a popular topic of study amongst researchers in various spheres of biology. However, many reports, seemed filled with more questions than answers regarding this herbivorous carnivoran, especially concerning its placement within the Carnivora family tree. Thanks to(More)
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