Michelle Spaan

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Sjögren's syndrome (SS) patients have low salivary dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and androgen biomarker levels, but high salivary oestrogen levels. The hypothesis was that the healthy glands contain DHEA-sulphate processing intracrine machinery; the local androgen/oestrogen imbalance suggests that this is disarranged in SS. Indirect immunofluorescence and(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a global health problem, resulting in liver failure, hepatocellular carcinoma, and liver-related death. Natural killer (NK) cells are innate immune cells, and their activity is known to correlate to viral treatment response of HCV. In this study, we investigate the immune effects of viral load decline(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS During chronic HCV infection, T cell dependent virus-specific antibodies are produced. However, the role of B-T cell interaction in chronic HCV is largely unknown. CD4(+)CXCR5(+) T follicular helper (TFH)-cells activate B cells and are important for clearance of various chronic viral infections. We investigated the function of TFH cells(More)
Little is known about the immune status in liver and blood of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection long after therapy-induced viral clearance. In this study, we demonstrate that, 4 years after clearance, regulation of HCV-specific immunity in blood by regulatory T cells (Tregs) and the immunosuppressive cytokines interleukin 10 and(More)
Chronic HBV and HCV infections are the leading cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality. For effective antiviral immunity, virus-specific T cells are required, but these cells have been shown to be weak or absent in chronic HBV and HCV patients. One of the mechanisms that underlies the impaired T-cell response is the result of the continuously high(More)
INTRODUCTION A strong immune response is integral to the clearance of HCV infection. NK cells are specialized cells that are able to inhibit replication of HCV in infected hepatocytes. Previous studies have correlated therapy outcome in HCV to the expression of various markers on NK cells. However, the effect of viral load reduction on NK cell function(More)
OBJECTIVE Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells comprise a subpopulation of T cells that can be activated by bacterial products and cytokines to produce IFN-γ. Since little is known on MAIT cells during HCV infection, we compared their phenotype and function in comparison to HIV and HCV/HIV co-infected patients, and determined the effect of(More)
Erythropoietin (EPO) is a hormone that controls red blood cell production. Binding of EPO to the EPO-receptor results in increased numbers of red blood cells in the circulation, which makes EPO a potent molecule to treat anemia in various groups of patients. Although numerous studies have examined the clinical effects of EPO, its immunological effects have(More)
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