Understand the life cycle of a clinical study from a financial perspective Understand the purpose of an Internal Cost Assessment (ICA) and how it impacts budget negotiations Learn how revenue is earned during a clinical study life cycle Understand what type of costs are incurred and the concept of effort management Learn the importance of financial and… (More)
BACKGROUND Hallux valgus (HV) is a foot deformity commonly seen in medical practice, often accompanied by significant functional disability and foot pain. Despite frequent mention in a diverse body of literature, a precise estimate of the prevalence of HV is difficult to ascertain. The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate prevalence of HV in… (More)
Concept inventories, consisting of multiple-choice questions designed around common student misconceptions, are designed to reveal student thinking. However, students often have complex, heterogeneous ideas about scientific concepts. Constructed-response assessments, in which students must create their own answer, may better reveal students' thinking, but… (More)
Although breathing perturbs balance, in healthy individuals little sway is detected in ground reaction forces because small movements of the spine and lower limbs compensate for the postural disturbance. When people have chronic low back pain (LBP), sway at the ground is increased, possibly as a result of reduced compensatory motion of the trunk. The aim of… (More)
Previous studies have demonstrated that the initial hypoalgesic effect of spinal manipulative therapy was not antagonized by naloxone and did not exhibit tolerance with repeated applications. The implication is that endogenous opioid mechanisms of pain relief are probably not at play in spinal manipulative therapy. The role of endogenous opioid peptides in… (More)
Why are performance trade-offs so rarely detected in animals when their underlying physiological basis seems so intuitive? One possibility is that individual variation in health, fitness, nutrition, development or genetics, or 'individual quality', makes some individuals better or worse performers across all motor tasks. If this is the case, then correcting… (More)
Modern agriculture has created a demand for plant biotechnology products that provide durable resistance to insect pests, tolerance of herbicide applications for weed control, and agronomic traits tailored for specific geographies. These transgenic trait products require a modular and sequential multigene stacking platform that is supported by precise… (More)
A podiatry survey: how do we treat hallux valgus conservatively?