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The immune response to the malaria parasite is complex and poorly understood. Although antibodies and T cells can control parasite growth in model systems, natural immunity to malaria in regions of high endemicity takes several years to develop. Variation and polymorphism of antibody target antigens are known to impede immune responses, but these factors(More)
Malaria is a highly prevalent disease caused by infection by Plasmodium spp., which infect hepatocytes and erythrocytes. Blood-stage infections cause devastating symptoms and can persist for years. Antibodies and CD4(+) T cells are thought to protect against blood-stage infections. However, there has been considerable difficulty in developing an efficacious(More)
This study identifies a dendritic cell (DC) subset that constitutively transports apoptotic intestinal epithelial cell remnants to T cell areas of mesenteric lymph nodes in vivo. Rat intestinal lymph contains two DC populations. Both populations have typical DC morphology, are major histocompatibility complex class II(hi), and express OX62, CD11c, and B7.(More)
CD40 is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily. The interaction between CD40 and CD40 ligand (CD154) activates NF-kappa B, Jun N-terminal kinase, and Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription pathways and promotes B cell growth, differentiation, and survival as well as IL-12 production in macrophages and dendritic(More)
The severity of malaria can range from asymptomatic to lethal infections involving severe anaemia and cerebral disease. However, the molecular and cellular factors responsible for these differences in disease severity are poorly understood. Identifying the factors that mediate virulence will contribute to developing antiparasitic immune responses. Since(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) initiate innate and adaptive immune responses including those against malaria. Although several studies have shown that DC function is normal during malaria, other studies have shown compromised function. To establish why these studies had different findings, we examined DCs from mice infected with two lethal species of parasite,(More)
Dendritic cells (DC) are thought to initiate Ab synthesis by activation of T cells, which then provide cytokine and cell-bound "help" to B cells. Here, we provide evidence that DC can capture and retain unprocessed Ag in vitro and in vivo, and can transfer this Ag to naive B cells to initiate a specific Ab response. The response is skewed with 4- to 13-fold(More)
Dendritic cells (DC) have recently been shown to play an important role in B-cell function. We have previously shown that DC can capture and retain unprocessed antigen in vitro and in vivo, and can transfer this antigen to naive B cells to initiate antigen-specific antibody responses. We also demonstrated that DC were providing B cells with isotype-switch(More)
Malaria is a serious cause of morbidity and mortality for people living in endemic areas, but unlike many other infections, individuals exposed to the parasite do not rapidly become resistant to subsequent infections. High titers of Ab against the 19-kDa C-terminal fragment of the merozoite surface protein-1 can mediate complete protection in model systems;(More)
Proteins of the mammalian PYHIN (IFI200/HIN-200) family are involved in defence against infection through recognition of foreign DNA. The family member absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) binds cytosolic DNA via its HIN domain and initiates inflammasome formation via its pyrin domain. AIM2 lies within a cluster of related genes, many of which are uncharacterised in(More)