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The liver X receptors (LXRs) are nuclear receptors with established roles in the regulation of lipid metabolism. We now show that LXR signaling not only regulates macrophage cholesterol metabolism but also impacts antimicrobial responses. Mice lacking LXRs are highly susceptible to infection with the intracellular bacteria Listeria monocytogenes (LM). Bone(More)
Effective clearance of apoptotic cells by macrophages is essential for immune homeostasis. The transcriptional pathways that allow macrophages to sense and respond to apoptotic cells are poorly defined. We found that liver X receptor (LXR) signaling was important for both apoptotic cell clearance and the maintenance of immune tolerance. Apoptotic cell(More)
We have previously shown that mouse atherosclerosis regression involves monocyte-derived (CD68+) cell emigration from plaques and is dependent on the chemokine receptor CCR7. Concurrent with regression, mRNA levels of the gene encoding LXRalpha are increased in plaque CD68+ cells, suggestive of a functional relationship between LXR and CCR7. To extend these(More)
Cholesterol is essential for membrane synthesis; however, the mechanisms that link cellular lipid metabolism to proliferation are incompletely understood. We demonstrate here that cellular cholesterol levels in dividing T cells are maintained in part through reciprocal regulation of the LXR and SREBP transcriptional programs. T cell activation triggers(More)
Liver X receptors (LXRs) alpha and beta are transcriptional regulators of cholesterol homeostasis and potential targets for the development of antiatherosclerosis drugs. However, the specific roles of individual LXR isotypes in atherosclerosis and the pharmacological effects of synthetic agonists remain unclear. Previous work has shown that mice lacking(More)
We have identified a novel liver X receptor (LXR) agonist (2) that activates the LXRbeta subtype with selectivity over LXRalpha. LXRbeta selectivity was confirmed using macrophages derived from LXR mutant mice. Despite its selectivity and modest potency, the compound can induce APO-AI-dependent cholesterol efflux from macrophages with full efficacy. Our(More)
Experimental and clinical studies link Chlamydia pneumoniae infection to atherogenesis and atherothrombotic events, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. We tested the hypothesis that C. pneumoniae-induced acceleration of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E (ApoE)(-/-) mice is reciprocally modulated by activation of TLR-mediated innate immune and liver(More)
Macrophages play a central role in the development of atherosclerosis through the accumulation of oxidized LDL (oxLDL). AIM (Spalpha/Api6) has previously been shown to promote macrophage survival; however, its function in atherogenesis is unknown. Here we identify AIM as a critical factor that protects macrophages from the apoptotic effects of oxidized(More)
The liver X receptors (LXRs) are ligand-dependent transcription factors that have been implicated in lipid metabolism and inflammation. LXRs also inhibit the expression of inflammatory genes in macrophages, including inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Some of these actions are mediated through LXR antagonism of NF-kappaB activity. The potential for(More)
Macrophage lipid metabolism and inflammatory responses are both regulated by the nuclear receptors PPAR and LXR. Emerging links between inflammation and metabolic disease progression suggest that PPAR and LXR signaling may alter macrophage function and thereby impact systemic metabolism. In this study, the function of macrophage PPAR and LXR in Th1-biased(More)